Borneol is basically obtained from teak family of trees widely available in nature and it is consequent of dryobalanops aromatica. It was used in classic Chinese medicines thousand years ago till now it is being used in their holistic treatments. Its terpene was harvested by tapping the tree trunk. After obtaining the terpene it was then cooled, after cooling it was hardened into a clear substance. Now a day’s most of the borneol is derived by turpentine oil or camphor and then converts in to a powder for medical use. Borneol can also be obtained artificially by synthesis process.
Chemical Structural Formula of Borneol
- Molecular formula: C10H18O
- Molar mass: 154.25 g/mol
- Density: 895 kg/m3
- Melting point: 208 °C
- Boiling point: 213 °C
- odor: Pungent ,camphor-like
- Flash point: 65 °C
- Solubility in water: Slightly soluble D-form
Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and is derivative of terpene. The hydroxyl group in this compound is placed in an endo position. Borneol presents as two enantiomers being chiral. Both of +ve borneol (d-borneol) and –ve borneol (l-borneol) are found in nature. It can be found in different species e.g. Blumea balsamifera, Dipterocarpaceae, Heterotheca, and Artemisia. It is also found in castoreum. This compound in gathered from the beaver’s plant food.Borneol can be synthetically obtained by the reduction of camphor by the meerwein ponndorf verley reduction which is a reversible process, reduction of the camphor with sodium borohydrate gives instead the isomer isoborneol as the kinetically controlled reaction product.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL SOURCE
As it is described in introduction borneol is derived by the terpene of a specific tree, and terpene is known for its woody, camphor like aroma, and a tack of Chinese traditional medicine. In traditional Chinese medicines, some medicines are specifically used for resuscitative purpose to restore consciousness in cases of heart attack, coma, heart stroke and other conditions which are related to brain. Borneol is representative drug that has been used in medical applications more than thousand years. Borneol is known to be a high lipid soluble bicyclic monoterpene with fragrant odor and it has captured the attention as a novel agent that can easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) because of its low molecular mass and high lipid solubility. Borneol is an effective and fast responding anti inflammatory and pain reliever among other herbal medicines.
There are two different types of borneol, (i) natural borneol, the major element of natural borneol is d-borneol which is consist of about 95% natural borneol. (ii) synthetic borneol, this is the mixture of DL-borneol and isoborneol, in synthetic borneol DL-borneol should be at least 55%.
Thus we can say in the era of eastern herbal medication and modern western medicine, borneol lauded for its healing powers in an unusually broad spectrum of conditions.
USES IN PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
Uses of borneol in pharmaceutical are very wider and diverse. It is being used for many conditions like to heal up pain brought on by rheumatic diseases, to ease digestion and improve circulation. In Chinese herbalism it is also being used to treat cough and cold due to its stress relieving qualities. Borneol has following therapeutic uses;
- Pain relieving agent: Aching Joints and muscles could be relieved by applying diluted thyme borneol oil.
- Anti-inflammatory agent: The one major use of borneol is to heal up inflammation; the pharmacists add this compound to medicated mouth wash in order to relieve conditions of red gums or tonsillitis.
- Anticoagulant: Borneol could also be used for preventive treatment of cardiovascular disease, and for the patients of thrombosis. In combination with a free radical reducing agent edaravone, borneol could potentially reduce the risk of blood clots.
Hence menthone has many therapeutic properties.
Borneol is also used as an active ingredient in insect repellants, it provide protection against mosquito borne illness (Nile virus). Scent/spray of borneol is used as bugs killer. But the effects of borneol on humans are quite different; people experience its refreshing sensation while walking through the forest of minty balsam fir trees. This refreshing sensation of makes borneol as a key component of many therapeutic essential oils. Just like thyme borneol oil has a fresh and strong fragrance. Thyme borneol oil is used as a stimulant for immune system and digestive issues. It is also used to treat respiratory health problems. Moreover thyme borneol oil is naturally present in the ginger, camphor, sage, rosemary and marjoram.
Below are the following highlights of its benefits.
Anti inflammation uses, pain reliever, anti coagulant, cardiovascular diseases, toxic for bugs, insect repellant.
SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS
Borneol is harmful if swallowed and inhaled.
It’s a skin and respiratory irritant.
It may cause an allergic skin reaction.
Its prolonged or repeated exposure should be avoided.