Corosolic acid is pentacyclic triterpene acid obtained from the Banaba tree Lagerstroemia. Banaba tree extracts were being used hundreds year ago as herbal medicine to treat the different health related issues. The first research took place on banaba tree extracts specially corosolic acid and its hypoglycemic effects were attributed. Corosolic acid reported to lower blood glucose levels in the body and found efficient for specifically diabetes patients. It has the rapid action of lowering the blood sugar level within 60 minutes in patients of diabetes. Corosolic has also antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties.
- Molecular formula: C30H48O4
- Molar mass: 472.710 g/mol
- Density: 1.14±0.1 g/cm3
- Melting point: 243-245°C
- Boiling point: 573.3±50 °C
BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL SOURCE
Corosolic acid is naturally found in plant/tree of banaba leafs. The origin of this plant is mainly south Asia, (India, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam), and also widely cultivated in china region. The plant Banaba Lagerstroemia was initially used as a folk medicine in southern Asia practices. In these cultures people use its leaves for treating malaria by pounding, its tea used made by its leaves for diabetes, which is natural plant insulin. It is when consumed orally is helpful for reducing the weight. According to recent research it is efficiently working for lowering blood sugar, reducing weight gain. It is effectively working due to its anti inflammatory and anti tumor properties, as well as anti cardiovascular disease and anti viral infections. Due to its effectiveness in lowering blood sugar level as insulin, it is also called natural plant insulin. That is the reason it is now widely being prepared in pharmaceutical applications for its benefits.Corosolic acid captured the attention of market because diabetes is globally most widespread and costly disease. And its insulin treatment is very costly which may also increase anti insulin antibody production causing side effects. But Corosolic acid is efficient in diabetes treatment with no induction of anti insulin antibodies.
HOW IT WORKS
There are two mechanism of action for Corosolic acid possibly. The First one is it can increase the sensitivity of insulin receptor on all cells of the body. Insulin get tie to this receptor to permit blood glucose to enter the cells. If it does not tie up with the receptor, insulin level may go higher which cause nerves damage, eyes damage, kidney, brain and other parts of the body. This is called insulin resistance which is a significant reason to fetch metabolic syndrome. Here corosolic acid improves the sensitivity of the insulin receptor by inhibiting a protein in the body called tyrosine phosphate.
The second mechanism of action of corosolic acid involves its capability to unlock an exclusively new pathway in cell glucose transporter. Which take up the glucose into the muscles of the body and controls the blood glucose levels.
Besides Corosolic acid inhibits the own body’s mechanism for manufacture of glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. This mechanism can perform a better action for lowering blood glucose levels in the body.
USES IN PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
Most of the study on corosolic acid carry the topic of its effectiveness on lowering blood glucose level and playing a better role of insulin by binding the insulin to insulin receptor. Corosolic acid acts as insulin sanitizer, enhancing insulin receptor B phosphorylation indirectly by inhibiting certain non receptor protein tyrosine phosphate. Some other study reports that corosolic acid inhibited gluconeogenesis by increasing the production of gluconeogenic intermediate fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in isolated hepatocytes, and it may be helpful to promote glycolysis.
Corosolic acid has toxicity to the cancer cells lines of humans. Its mechanism of action may be related with the inhibition of protein kinase C activity. Corosolic acid may also be obtained from the fruit of crataegus pinnatifida alleged and mimicked a protein kinase C (cytotoxic agent).
Corosolic acid has best properties as anti-inflammation and antioxidant agent. It has a vital role to fight against the infection. Commencement of complement system provides proficient means for shielding the host from the action of invading antigens.
■ METABOLIC SYNDROME
Metabolic syndrome is a condition due to which many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, hypertension, bad lipid metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance occurs. In a research on metabolic syndrome some experiments was done on animals. Corosolic acid was found to have a anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antihypertensive and lipid lowering agent. In this study corosolic acid reduced blood pressure and serum free fatty acid levels.
Moreover corosolic acid is cholesterol lowering agent, cholesterol increase level leads to cardiovascular diseases. Corosolic acid reduces cholesterol absorption process in the small intestine via inhibition of activity of cholesterol acyltransferase.
Hence it has many therapeutic uses and it is commercially available in different formulations including, capsules, cosmetics, and hypoglycemic foods.
SIDE EFFECTS AND PRECAUTIONS
Side effects of corosolic acid include headache, skin rashes and fatigue due to experiencing exceed in optimal dosage.
No serious side effects of corosolic acid observed in clinical trials.