Xanthoceras sorbifolium,Ligustrum lucidum,Trigonella foenum-graecum,Daphne genkwa,Citrus maxima
DMSO : ≥ 50 mg/mL (183.65 mM)
*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.
577.5ºC at 760mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:67604-48-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) of EFSA was requested to deliver a scientific opinion on the implications for human health of the flavouring substance 4′,5,7‐trihydroxyflavanone or naringenin [FL‐no: 16.132], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 410 (FGE.410), according to Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The substance occurs naturally in grapefruits, oranges and tomatoes. It is intended to be used as a flavouring substance with flavour‐modifying properties in specific categories of food. Information on specifications and manufacturing of [FL‐no: 16.132] were considered adequate; however, data on stability in food are incomplete. The Panel noted that the available genotoxicity studies have significant shortcomings and are insufficient to conclude on the genotoxic potential of naringenin. Therefore, [FL‐no: 16.132] cannot be evaluated through the Procedure. Additionally, the Panel noted that inhibition of CYP 450 by [FL‐no: 16.132] has been clearly demonstrated in animal species in vivo which implies that the substance may interact with the metabolism and elimination of medicines and no convincing information is available that this does not pose a risk to humans at the estimated levels of exposure. To continue with the safety assessment of [FL‐no: 16.132], a bacterial gene mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus assay (according to OECD guidelines 471, 487 and GLP) are required. Even if these studies do not indicate a genotoxic potential, additional toxicological data are needed to finalise the evaluation.
flavouring, 4′,5,7‐trihydroxyflavanone, naringenin, FGE.410, [FL‐no: 16.132]
Scientific Opinion of Flavouring Group Evaluation 410 (FGE.410): 4’,5,7‐trihydroxyflavanone from chemical group 25 (phenol derivatives containing ring‐alkyl, ring‐alkoxy, and side‐chains with an oxygenated functional group)
EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF), Vittorio Silano, Claudia Bolognesi, Laurence Castle, Kevin Chipman, Jean‐Pierre Cravedi, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul Fowler, Roland Franz, Konrad Grob, Rainer Gurtler, Trine Husøy, Sirpa Karenlampi, Maria Rosaria Milana, Karla Pfaff, Gilles Riviere, Jannavi Srinivasan, Maria de Fatima Tavares Pocas, Christina Tlustos, Detlef Wolfle, Holger Zorn, Ulla Beckman Sundh, † Romualdo Benigni, Mona‐Lise Binderup, Leon Brimer, Francesca Marcon, Daniel Marzin, Pasquale Mosesso, Gerard Mulder, Agneta Oskarsson, Camilla Svendsen, Maria Anastassiadou, Maria Carfì, and Wim Mennes
Flavonoids are plant-derived compounds that occur abundantly in fruits and vegetables and have been shown to possess potent anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their direct targets and molecular mechanism of action are not well characterized, hampering exploitation of the beneficial properties of flavonoids for drug development. Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) is attached to target proteins as part of a post-translational modification system implicated in a myriad of cellular processes from nuclear trafficking to transcriptional regulation. Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry and fluorescence quenching studies, we provide evidence for direct binding of the dietary flavonoid fisetin to human SUMO1. Our NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses reveal that binding to fisetin involves four conserved amino acid residues (L65, F66, E67, M82) previously shown to be important for conjugation of SUMO1 to target proteins. In vitro sumoylation experiments indicate that fisetin blocks sumoylation of tumor suppressor p53, consistent with fisetin negatively affecting post-translational modification and thus the biological activity of p53. A series of differential scanning fluorimetry experiments suggest that high concentrations of fisetin result in destabilization and unfolding of SUMO1, presenting a molecular mechanism by which flavonoid binding affects its activity. Overall, our data establish a novel direct interaction between fisetin and SUMO1, providing a mechanistic explanation for the ability of fisetin to modulate multiple key signaling pathways inside cells.
Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds human SUMO1 and blocks sumoylation of p53
Vaithish Velazhahan, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft,1,2,¤a Przemyslaw Glaza, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing - review & editing,2 Alvaro I. Herrera, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,2,¤b Om Prakash, Formal analysis, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,2 Michal Zolkiewski, Formal analysis, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,2 Brian V. Geisbrecht, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,2 and Kathrin Schrick, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing1,3,*Carl G. Maki, Editor
To date, multi-drug resistant bacteria represent an increasing health threat, with a high impact on mortality, morbidity, and health costs on a global scale. The ability of bacteria to rapidly and permanently acquire new virulence factors and drug-resistance elements requires the development of new antimicrobial agents and selection of new proper targets, such as sortase A. This specific bacterial target plays an important role in the virulence of many Gram-positive pathogens, and its inhibition should produce a mild evolutionary pressure which will not favor the development of resistance. A primary screening using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to experimentally evaluate the inhibitory activity of several compounds on sortase A. Using molecular docking and structure-activity relationship analyses, several lead inhibitors were identified, which were further tested for antimicrobial activity using the well diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration. The toxicity was assessed using the Daphnia magna test and used as a future screening filter. Three natural compounds were identified in this study as promising candidates for further development into therapeutically useful anti-infective agents that could be used to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens which include sortase A in their enzymatic set.
sortase A, Gram-positive bacteria, MDR-bacteria, molecular docking, Staphylococcus aureus, anti-infective, Daphnia magna
Molecular Docking and Screening Studies of New Natural Sortase A Inhibitors
Georgiana Nitulescu, Isabela Madalina Nicorescu, Octavian Tudorel Olaru, Anca Ungurianu, Dragos Paul Mihai, Anca Zanfirescu, George Mihai Nitulescu,* and Denisa Margina