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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:22083-74-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The lanthanides (Ln) are an essential part of many advanced technologies. Our societal transformation toward renewable energy drives their ever-growing demand. The similar chemical properties of the Ln pose fundamental difficulties in separating them from each other, yet high purity elements are crucial for specific applications. Here, we propose an intralanthanide separation method utilizing a group of titanium(IV) butyl phosphate coordination polymers as solid-phase extractants. These materials are characterized, and they contain layered structures directed by the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains. The selective Ln uptake results from the transmetalation reaction (framework metal cation exchange), where the titanium(IV) serves as sacrificial coordination centers. The “tetrad effect” is observed from a dilute Ln3+ mixture. However, smaller Ln3+ ions are preferentially extracted in competitive binary separation models between adjacent Ln pairs. The intralanthanide ion-exchange selectivity arises synergistically from the coordination and steric strain preferences, both of which follow the reversed Ln contraction order. A one-step aqueous separation of neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) is quantitatively achievable by simply controlling the solution pH in a batch mode, translating into a separation factor of greater than 2000 and 99.1% molar purity of Dy in the solid phase. Coordination polymers provide a versatile platform for further exploring selective Ln separation processes via the transmetalation process.
titanium phosphate, ion exchange, lanthanide contraction, organophosphate ligand, solid-phase extraction
Intralanthanide Separation on Layered Titanium(IV) Organophosphate Materials via a Selective Transmetalation Process
Wenzhong Zhang,*† Sami Hietala,‡ Leonid Khriachtchev,‡ Timo Hatanpaa,‡ Bhairavi Doshi,§ and Risto Koivula†
2018 Jul 5;
There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age‐related macular degeneration (AMD).
To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 29 March 2017, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 29 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 29 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 29 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.
We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control.
Data collection and analysis
Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed‐effect model. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.
We included a total of five RCTs in this review with data available for 76,756 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, and the USA, and investigated vitamin C, vitamin E, beta‐carotene, and multivitamin supplements. All trials were judged to be at low risk of bias.
Four studies reported the comparison of vitamin E with placebo. Average treatment and follow‐up duration ranged from 4 to 10 years. Data were available for a total of 55,614 participants. There was evidence that vitamin E supplements do not prevent the development of any AMD (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.06; high‐certainty evidence), and may slightly increase the risk of late AMD (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.67; moderate‐certainty evidence) compared with placebo. Only one study (941 participants) reported data separately for neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy. There were 10 cases of neovascular AMD (RR 3.62, 95% CI 0.77 to 16.95; very low‐certainty evidence), and four cases of geographic atrophy (RR 2.71, 95% CI 0.28 to 26.0; very low‐certainty evidence). Two trials reported similar numbers of adverse events in the vitamin E and placebo groups. Another trial reported excess of haemorrhagic strokes in the vitamin E group (39 versus 23 events, hazard ratio 1.74, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91, low‐certainty evidence).
Two studies reported the comparison of beta‐carotene with placebo. These studies took place in Finland and the USA. Both trials enrolled men only. Average treatment and follow‐up duration was 6 years and 12 years. Data were available for a total of 22,083 participants. There was evidence that beta‐carotene supplements did not prevent any AMD (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.14; high‐certainty evidence) nor have an important effect on late AMD (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.24; moderate‐certainty evidence). Only one study (941 participants) reported data separately for neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy. There were 10 cases of neovascular AMD (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.15; very low‐certainty evidence) and 4 cases of geographic atrophy (RR 0.31 95% CI 0.03 to 2.93; very low‐certainty evidence). Beta‐carotene was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in people who smoked.
One study reported the comparison of vitamin C with placebo, and multivitamin (Centrum Silver) versus placebo. This was a study in men in the USA with average treatment duration and follow‐up of 8 years for vitamin C and 11 years for multivitamin. Data were available for a total of 14,236 participants. AMD was assessed by self‐report followed by medical record review. There was evidence that vitamin C supplementation did not prevent any AMD (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.18; high‐certainty evidence) or late AMD (RR 0.94, 0.61 to 1.46; moderate‐certainty evidence). There was a slight increased risk of any AMD (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.43; moderate‐certainty evidence) and late AMD (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.69; moderate‐certainty evidence) in the multivitamin group. Neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy were not reported separately. Adverse effects were not reported but there was possible increased risk of skin rashes in the multivitamin group.
Adverse effects were not consistently reported in these eye studies, but there is evidence from other large studies that beta‐carotene increases the risk of lung cancer in people who smoke or who have been exposed to asbestos.
None of the studies reported quality of life or resource use and costs.
Taking vitamin E or beta‐carotene supplements will not prevent or delay the onset of AMD. The same probably applies to vitamin C and the multivitamin (Centrum Silver) investigated in the one trial reported to date. There is no evidence with respect to other antioxidant supplements, such as lutein and zeaxanthin. Although generally regarded as safe, vitamin supplements may have harmful effects, and clear evidence of benefit is needed before they can be recommended. People with AMD should see the related Cochrane Review on antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of AMD, written by the same review team.
Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age‐related macular degeneration
Monitoring Editor: Jennifer R Evans,corresponding author John G Lawrenson, and Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group
In South Africa, many HIV-infected patients experience delays in accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined pre-treatment mortality and access to treatment in patients waiting for ART.
Cohort of HIV-infected patients assessed for ART eligibility at 36 facilities participating in the Comprehensive HIV and AIDS Management (CHAM) program in the Free State Province.
Proportion of patients initiating ART, pre-ART mortality and risk factors associated with these outcomes were estimated using competing risks survival analysis.
44,844 patients enrolled in CHAM between May 2004 and December 2007, of whom 22,083 (49.2%) were eligible for ART; pre-ART mortality was 53.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI 51.8-54.7). Median CD4 count at eligibility increased from 87 cells/mm3 in 2004 to 101 cells/mm3 in 2007. Two years after eligibility an estimated 67.7% (67.1% – 68.4%) of patients had started ART, and 26.2% (25.6% – 26.9%) died before starting ART. Among patients with CD4 counts <25 cells/mm3 at eligibility, 48% died before ART and 51% initiated ART. Men were less likely to start treatment and more likely to die than women. Patients in rural clinics or clinics with low staffing levels had lower rates of starting treatment and higher mortality compared with patients in urban/ peri-urban clinics, or better staffed clinics. Conclusions Mortality is high in eligible patients waiting for ART in the Free State Province. The most immunocompromised patients had the lowest probability of starting ART and the highest risk of pre-ART death. Prioritization of these patients should reduce waiting times and pre-ART mortality.
HIV, ART, South Africa, waiting times, mortality, treatment access
Outcomes in Patients Waiting for Antiretroviral Treatment in the Free State Province, South Africa: Prospective Linkage Study
Suzanne INGLE, MSc,1 Margaret MAY, PhD,1 Kerry UEBEL, MFamMed,2 Venessa TIMMERMAN, MSc,2 Eduan KOTZE, PhD,3 Max BACHMANN, PhD,4 Jonathan A C STERNE, PhD,1 Matthias EGGER, MD,5 and Lara FAIRALL, MD PhD2,6, for IeDEA-Southern Africa
2011 Dec 12.