2H-1-Benzopyran-7-ol, 3,4-dihydro-3-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-/3-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-7-ol/3-(2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-7-chromanol/2',7-DIHYDROXY-4'-METHOXYISOFLAVAN/7,2'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan/2H-1-Benzopyran-7-ol, 3,4-dihydro-3-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-, (±)-/VESTITOL
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
418.5±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Although, when applied under controlled conditions in India and Nepal, indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been found to reduce sandfly densities significantly, it is not known if IRS will be as effective when applied generally in these countries, via the national programmes for the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. The potential benefits and limitations of national IRS programmes for the control of sandflies were therefore evaluated in the districts of Vaishali (in the Indian state of Bihar), Sarlahi (in Nepal) and Sunsari (also in Nepal). The use of technical guidelines, levels of knowledge and skills related to spraying operations, insecticide bio-availability on the sprayed surfaces, concentrations of the insecticide on the walls of sprayed houses, insecticide resistance, and the effectiveness of spraying, in terms of reducing sandfly densities within sprayed houses (compared with those found in unsprayed sentinel houses or control villages) were all explored. It was observed that IRS programme managers, at district and subdistrict levels in India and Nepal, used the relevant technical guidelines and were familiar with the procedures for IRS operation. The performance of the spraying activities, however, showed important deficiencies. The results of bio-assays and the chemical analysis of samples from sprayed walls indicated substandard spraying and suboptimal concentrations of insecticide on sprayed surfaces. This was particularly obvious at one of the Nepali study sites (Sunsari district), where no significant vector reduction was achieved. Sandfly resistance to the insecticide used in India (DDT) was widespread but the potential vectors in Nepal remained very susceptible towards a pyrethroid similar to the one used there. The overall short-term effectiveness of IRS was found to be satisfactory in two of the three study sites (in terms of reduction in the densities of the sandfly vectors). Unfortunately, the medium-term evaluation, conducted 5?months after spraying, was probably made invalid by flooding or lime plastering in the study areas. Preparation for, and the monitoring of, the IRS operations against sandfly populations in India and Nepal need to be improved.
The Indian and Nepalese programmes of indoor residual spraying for the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: performance and effectiveness
R Chowdhury,*† M M Huda,‡ V Kumar,§ P Das,§ A B Joshi,¶ M R Banjara,¶ S Akhter,* A Kroeger,** B Krishnakumari,†† M Petzold,‡‡ D Mondal,‡ and M L Das¶¶
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes. Here, we introduce a clinically relevant mouse model of tibial fracture. The postoperative changes in these mice mimic some of the cognitive impairments commonly observed after routine orthopedic surgery in humans. Briefly, an incision is performed in the right hind limb under strictly aseptic conditions. Muscles are disassociated, and a 0.38-mm stainless steel pin is inserted into the upper crest of the tibia, inside the intramedullary canal. Osteotomy is then performed, and the wound is stapled. We have used this model to investigate the effects of surgical trauma on postoperative neuroinflammation and behavioral changes. By applying this fracture model in combination with parabiosis, a surgical model in which 2 mice are anastomosed, we have studied cells and secreted factors that systemically rejuvenate organ function and tissue regeneration after injury. By following our step-by-step protocol, these models can be reproduced with high fidelity, and can be adapted to interrogate many biologic pathways that are altered by surgical trauma.
This Month in JoVE, Issue 132, Aging, behavior, cytokines, delirium, healing, mouse model, neuroinflammation, orthopedic surgery, parabiosis, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, regeneration
A Mouse Model of Orthopedic Surgery to Study Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction and Tissue Regeneration
Chao Xiong, 1 Zhiquan Zhang, 1 Gurpreet S. Baht, 2 , 3 and Niccolo Terrando 1 , 4
We present the complete genome sequence of fluoranthene-consuming Cycloclasticus sp. strain PY97N. This strain has one circular chromosome with a G+C content of 42.06%. Moreover, two genomic islands were identified as putative conjugative elements. These genomic details are expected to inform our understanding of the remarkable catabolic capacities of organisms of the Cycloclasticus lineage.
Complete Genome Sequence of Cycloclasticus sp. Strain PY97N, Which Includes Two Heavy Metal Resistance Genomic Islands
Zhisong Cui,corresponding authora,b Veronika Kivenson,c Na Liu,c Angela Xu,d Xiao Luan,a,e Wei Gao,a Blair Paul,b and David L. Valentinecorresponding authorb