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The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF. We found that elevated propensity to CDA rendered the atria vulnerable to ectopy-induced arrhythmia. It also increased the complexity and persistence of arrhythmias induced by fast pacing, with unstable scroll waves meandering and frequently breaking up to produce multiple wavelets. Our results suggest that calcium-induced electrical instability may increase arrhythmia vulnerability and promote increasing disorganization of arrhythmias in the chronic AF-remodeled atria, thus playing an important role in the progression of the disease.
Mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis related to calcium-driven alternans in a model of human atrial fibrillation
Kelly C. Chang1 and Natalia A. Trayanovaa,1
Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention.
In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance.
The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, P<.001) or a group (IRR=2.65, 95% CI 1.08-6.50, P=.03) compared with those that included an image of a single person. Ads that included an image of a couple also had a higher conversion rate (IRR=2.56, 95% CI 1.13-5.77, P=.02) than ads that included an image of a single person. Ads with text mentioning an STD had a higher unique click-through rate compared with ads with text mentioning cancer (IRR=1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.69, P=.01). The campaign cost a total of US $413.72 and resulted in 150 eligible and enrolled individuals (US $2.76 per enrolled participant). Conclusions Facebook ads are a convenient and cost-efficient strategy for reaching and recruiting young gay and bisexual men for a Web-based HPV vaccination intervention. To help optimize ad performance among this population, researchers should consider the importance of the text and image included in the social media recruitment ads.
HPV, HPV vaccine, gay and bisexual men, social media
Recruiting Young Gay and Bisexual Men for a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention Through Social Media: The Effects of Advertisement Content
Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee
This study investigated the effects of diabetes and antidiabetic medications on the risk of pancreatic cancer(PaC). We extracted data on Koreans with newly diagnosed diabetes and selected age- and sex-matched controls provided by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Incident PaC was defined as a new registration in the Korea Central Cancer Registry under ICD-10 C25 with admission history until 2015. During 19,429,617.1 person-years, 8,589 PaCs were identified in 1,005,409 subjects for diabetes group and 4,021,636 subjects for control group. The diabetes group showed more than a two-fold risk for PaC compared with the control group. Among antidiabetic medications, metformin, thiazolidinedione, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor exposure was associated with decreased risk for future PaC(hazard ratio[95% confidence interval] = 0.86[0.77-0.96], 0.82[0.68-0.98], 0.57[0.51-0.64], respectively), whereas sulfonylurea and insulin exposure was related to increased risk(hazard ratio[95% CI] = 1.73[1.57-1.91], 2.86[1.43-5.74], respectively) compared to subjects with no drug exposure. Moreover, subjects with dual exposure history to metformin plus thiazolidinedione or metformin plus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor had a lower risk of PaC compared to metformin-only treated subjects. In conclusion, Korean adults with diabetes are at higher risk of PaC compared with nondiabetic individuals, and this risk may be modified by antidiabetic medications.
The influence of diabetes and antidiabetic medications on the risk of pancreatic cancer: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
Da Young Lee, Ji Hee Yu, Sanghyun Park, Kyungdo Han, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A. Seo