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Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity.
The current study examined the immunomodulation effect of G. lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan according to immunoglobulin, poly-Ig receptor expression, Nature Killer cell (NK cell) activity, lymphocytes proliferation and cytokines expression.
Our present study shows that feeding G. lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan to mice induces IgA or IgG expression in the serum and small intestine washing fluid and enhances poly-Ig receptor expression in the small intestine moreover, the observation of the IL-2 and Nature killer cell activity were exchanged.
The effect of a high-cholesterol diet in the inflammatory response was observed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and colon tissues through histopathological evaluations. The presented evidence demonstrates that the inflammation response in the high-cholesterol diet group was much higher than in the other groups and the beta 1,3/1,6 glucan reduces inflammation in obese mice fed a high-cholesterol diet.
Ganoderma lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan as an immunomodulator in inflammation induced by a high-cholesterol diet
Yu-Sheng Wu,#1 Shu-Ying Ho,#1 Fan-Hua Nan,2 and Shiu-Nan Chencorresponding author1
Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks.
Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale.
All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction.
Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions – in clinical situations and in research.
Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks
M Fechir,*,1 T Schlereth,1 T Purat,1 S Kritzmann,1 C Geber,1,3 T Eberle,1 M Gamer,2 and F Birklein1
The larvae of the deep-sea pandalid shrimp Plesionika grandis Doflein, 1902 were successfully reared in the laboratory for the first time. The larvae reached the eighth zoeal stage in 36 days, both of which are longest records for the genus. Early larval stages of P. grandis bear the general characters of pandalid shrimps and differ from the other two species of Plesionika with larval morphology known in the number of spines on the anteroventral margin of carapace, number of tubercles on antennule, endopod segmentation in antenna, and third maxilliped setation. Although members in Plesionika are often separated into species groups, members of the same species group do not necessarily have similar early larval morphology. Since the zoea VIII of P. grandis still lacks pleopods and fifth pereiopod, this shrimp likely has at least 12 zoeal stages and a larval development of 120 days.
Deep-sea, larval development, Pandalidae, Plesionika, shrimps, zoea
Larval development to the first eighth zoeal stages in the deep-sea caridean shrimp Plesionika grandis Doflein, 1902 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae)
Guo-Chen Jiang,1 Tin-Yam Chan,2 and Tung-Wei Shih1