Diphenylpropanoids from Quisqualis indica Linn. and their Anti-staphylococcal Activity. PUMID/DOI：无 Lat. Am. J. Pharm.,2009,28 (2): 279-83. Four diphenylpropanoids- 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ol (1), 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ol (2), 1-(3,4-dimetboxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)propan-1-ylacetate (3) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy) propan-1-ol (4) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Quisqualis indica. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by MS and a series of 1D and 2D-NMR analyses. All compounds were tested for their anti-staphylococcal activity against a total of five multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were in the range of 128-256 mu g/ml.
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Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are compelling modulator candidates for the chronobiology of neuroendocrine output and, as a consequence, hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Here we investigate the effects of H/O peptides upon tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons – cells which control, via inhibition, the pituitary secretion of prolactin. In whole cell recordings performed in male rat hypothalamic slices, application of H/O-A, as well as H/O-B, excited oscillating TIDA neurons, inducing a reversible depolarising switch from phasic to tonic discharge. The H/O-induced inward current underpinning this effect was post-synaptic (as it endured in the presence of tetrodotoxin), appeared to be carried by a Na+-dependent transient receptor potential-like channel (as it was blocked by 2-APB and was diminished by removal of extracellular Na+), and was a consequence of OX2R receptor activation (as it was blocked by the OX2R receptor antagonist TCS OX2 29, but not the OX1R receptor antagonist SB 334867). Application of the hormone, melatonin, failed to alter TIDA membrane potential or oscillatory activity. This first description of the electrophysiological effects of H/Os upon the TIDA network identifies cellular mechanisms that may contribute to the circadian rhythmicity of prolactin secretion.
Hypocretin/Orexin Peptides Excite Rat Neuroendocrine Dopamine Neurons through Orexin 2 Receptor-Mediated Activation of a Mixed Cation Current
David J. Lyons,a,* Arash Hellysaz,1 Rachida Ammari,1 and Christian Brobergerb,1
Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.
Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis
Youn-Kyoung Goo,1 Won-Sik Shin,2 Hye-Won Yang,1 So-Young Joo,1 Su-Min Song,1 Jae-Sook Ryu,3 Hyun-Hee Kong,4 Won-Ki Lee,5 Dong-Il Chung,1 and Yeonchul Hong1,*
Haptic perception synthesizes touch with proprioception, the sense of body position. Humans and mice alike experience rich active touch of the face. Because most facial muscles lack proprioceptor endings, the sensory basis of facial proprioception remains unsolved. Facial proprioception may instead rely on mechanoreceptors that encode both touch and self-motion. In rodents, whisker mechanoreceptors provide a signal that informs the brain about whisker position. Whisking involves coordinated orofacial movements, so mechanoreceptors innervating facial regions other than whiskers could also provide information about whisking. To define all sources of sensory information about whisking available to the brain, we recorded spikes from mechanoreceptors innervating diverse parts of the face. Whisker motion was encoded best by whisker mechanoreceptors, but also by those innervating whisker pad hairy skin and supraorbital vibrissae. Redundant self-motion responses may provide the brain with a stable proprioceptive signal despite mechanical perturbations during active touch.
Research organism: Mouse
Coding of whisker motion across the mouse face
Kyle S Severson,1 Duo Xu,1 Hongdian Yang,1† and Daniel H O'Connor1 Andrew J King, Reviewing Editor and Andrew J King, Senior Editor Andrew J King, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Contributor Information.