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  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O1498

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 117842-14-5

  • Formula : C32H42O9

  • Molecular Weight : 570.67

  • Volume : 5mg

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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:117842-14-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

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During meiosis, the Msh4-Msh5 complex is thought to stabilize single-end invasion intermediates that form during early stages of recombination and subsequently bind to Holliday junctions to facilitate crossover formation. To analyze Msh4-Msh5 function, we mutagenized 57 residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh4 and Msh5 that are either conserved across all Msh4/5 family members or are specific to Msh4 and Msh5. The Msh5 subunit appeared more sensitive to mutagenesis. We identified msh4 and msh5 threshold (msh4/5-t) mutants that showed wild-type spore viability and crossover interference but displayed, compared to wild-type, up to a two-fold decrease in crossing over on large and medium sized chromosomes (XV, VII, VIII). Crossing over on a small chromosome, however, approached wild-type levels. The msh4/5-t mutants also displayed synaptonemal complex assembly defects. A triple mutant containing a msh4/5-t allele and mutations that decreased meiotic double-strand break levels (spo11-HA) and crossover interference (pch2Δ) showed synergistic defects in spore viability. Together these results indicate that the baker’s yeast meiotic cell does not require the ∼90 crossovers maintained by crossover homeostasis to form viable spores. They also show that Pch2-mediated crossover interference is important to maintain meiotic viability when crossovers become limiting.


Genetic Analysis of Baker's Yeast Msh4-Msh5 Reveals a Threshold Crossover Level for Meiotic Viability


K. T. Nishant, 1 Cheng Chen, 1 Miki Shinohara, 2 Akira Shinohara, 2 and Eric Alani 1 , * Gregory P. Copenhaver, Editor

Publish date

2010 Aug;




2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective dicarbonyl electrophile scavenger being developed as a nutritional supplement to help protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl electrophile formation, such as the cognitive decline observed with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer’s disease.

This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of repeated oral doses of 2-HOBA acetate (500 or 750 mg) administered to healthy volunteers every eight hours for two weeks. The effects of 2-HOBA on cyclooxygenase function and cerebrospinal fluid penetrance of 2-HOBA were also investigated.

Repeated oral administration of 2-HOBA was found to be safe and well-tolerated up to 750 mg TID for 15 days. 2-HOBA was absorbed within 2 h of administration, had a half-life of 2.10-3.27 h, and an accumulation ratio of 1.38-1.52. 2-HOBA did not interfere with cyclooxygenase function and was found to be present in cerebrospinal fluid 90 min after dosing.

Repeated oral administration of 2-HOBA was found to be safe and well-tolerated. These results support continued development of 2-HOBA as a nutritional supplement.

Trial registration
Studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03555682 Registered 13 June 2018, NCT03554096 Registered 12 June 18).


Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Humans, Salicylamine, γ-Ketoaldehydes


Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of repeated oral doses of 2-hydroxybenzylamine acetate in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial


Lisa M. Pitchford, Patricia M. Driver, John C. Fuller, Jr, Wendell S. Akers, Naji N. Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Ginger L. Milne, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Fei Ye, L. Jackson Roberts, II, M. Benjamin Shoemaker, John A. Oates, John A. Rathmacher, Olivier Boutaud

Publish date





Hyaluronidase has been used over many decades as an adjunct to local anaesthetic solution to improve the speed of onset of eye blocks and to provide better akinesia and analgesia. With the evolution of modern eye surgery techniques, fast onset and akinesia are not essential requirements anymore. The assumption that the addition of hyaluronidase to local anaesthetic injections confers better analgesia for the patient needs to be examined. There has been no recent systematic review to provide evidence that hyaluronidase actually improves analgesia.

To ascertain if adding hyaluronidase to local anaesthetic solutions for use in ophthalmic anaesthesia in adults results in a reduction of perceived pain during the operation and to assess harms, participant and surgical satisfaction, and economic impact.

Search methods
We carried out systematic searches in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and four other databases in June 2017. We searched the trial registers at www.ISRCTN.com, ClinicalTrials.gov and www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu for relevant trials. We imposed no language restrictions.

Selection criteria
We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of hyaluronidase on pain experienced by adults during intraocular surgery using a rating scale.

Data collection and analysis
Two review authors (HR and KA) independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality using standard procedures as expected by Cochrane.

Main results
We included seven trials involving 500 participants that studied the effect of hyaluronidase on intraoperative pain. Four of the seven trials with 289 participants reported the primary outcome in a dichotomous manner, and we proceeded to meta‐analyse the findings which showed a moderate heterogeneity that could not be explained (I2 = 41% ). The pooled risk ratio (RR) for these four trials was 0.83 with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 0.48 to 1.42. The reduction in intraoperative pain scores in the hyaluronidase group were not statistically significant. Among the three trials that reported the primary outcome in a continuous manner, the presence of missing data made it difficult to conduct a meta‐analysis. To further explore the data, we imputed standard deviations for the other studies from another included RCT (Sedghipour 2012). However, this resulted in substantial heterogeneity between study estimates (I² = 76% ). The lack of reported relevant data in two of the three remaining trials made it difficult to assess the direction of effect in a clinical setting.

Overall, there was no statistical difference regarding the intraoperative reduction of pain scores between the hyaluronidase and control group. All seven included trials had a low risk of bias.

According to GRADE, we found the quality of evidence was low and downgraded the trials for serious risk of inconsistency and imprecision. Therefore, the results should be analysed with caution.

Participant satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the hyaluronidase group in two high quality trials with 122 participants. Surgical satisfaction was also superior in two of three high quality trials involving 141 participants. According to GRADE, the quality of evidence was moderate for participant and surgical satisfaction as the trials were downgraded for imprecision due to the small sample sizes. The risk of bias in these trials was low.

There was no reported harm due to the addition of hyaluronidase in any of the studies. No study reported on the cost of hyaluronidase in the context of eye surgery.

Authors’ conclusions
The effects of adding hyaluronidase to local anaesthetic fluid on pain outcomes in people undergoing eye surgery are uncertain due to the low quality of evidence available. A well designed RCT is required to address inconsistency and imprecision among the studies and to determine the benefit of hyaluronidase to improve analgesia during eye surgery. Participant and surgical satisfaction is higher with hyaluronidase compared to the control groups, as demonstrated in moderate quality studies. There was no harm attributed to the use of hyaluronidase in any of the studies. Considering that harm was only rarely defined as an outcome measure, and the overall small number of participants, conclusions cannot be drawn about the incidence of harmful effects of hyaluronidase. None of the studies undertook cost calculations with regards to use of hyaluronidase in local anaesthetic eye blocks.


Adult, Humans, Analgesia, Analgesia/methods, Analgesics, Analgesics/administration & dosage, Anesthesia, Local, Anesthesia, Local/methods, Anesthetics, Local, Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/administration & dosage, Intraoperative Complications, Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control, Pain Measurement, Pain, Procedural, Pain, Procedural/prevention & control, Patient Satisfaction, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


Use of hyaluronidase as an adjunct to local anaesthetic eye blocks to reduce intraoperative pain in adults


Heinrich Ruschen, Kavitha Aravinth, Catey Bunce, Desta Bokre

Publish date

2018 Mar;

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