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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have critical regulatory functions in almost all known biological processes at the post-transcriptional level in a variety of organisms. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the most serious pests in orchards worldwide and threatens the production of Rosacea fruits. In this study, a de novo small RNA library constructed from mixed stages of G. molesta was sequenced through Illumina sequencing platform and a total of 536 mature miRNAs consisting of 291 conserved and 245 novel miRNAs were identified. Most of the conserved and novel miRNAs were detected with moderate abundance. The miRNAs in the same cluster normally showed correlated expressional profiles. A comparative analysis of the 79 conserved miRNA families within 31 arthropod species indicated that these miRNA families were more conserved among insects and within orders of closer phylogenetic relationships. The KEGG pathway analysis and network prediction of target genes indicated that the complex composed of miRNAs, clock genes and developmental regulation genes may play vital roles to regulate the developmental circadian rhythm of G. molesta. Furthermore, based on the sRNA library of G. molesta, suitable reference genes were selected and validated for study of miRNA transcriptional profile in G. molesta under two biotic and six abiotic experimental conditions. This study systematically documented the miRNA profile in G. molesta, which could lay a foundation for further understanding of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the development and metabolism in this pest and might also suggest clues to the development of genetic-based techniques for agricultural pest control.
De novo characterization of microRNAs in oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and selection of reference genes for normalization of microRNA expression
Xiu Wang,#1 Yisong Li,#1,2 Jing Zhang,1 Qingwen Zhang,1 Xiaoxia Liu,1,* and Zhen Li1,* Youjun Zhang, Editor
Despite the vast literature on health care expenditures (HCE) and health care financing strategies (HCFS) in low- and middle-income countries, there is limited evidence of gender disparity in HCFS for inpatient care. We examined gender disparities in HCE and HCFS for inpatient care among adults aged 15 and older in India which is widely known for gender-based discrimination in sex-selective abortion, nutrition, and access to health care. Using data from a nationally representative large-scale population-based survey, we investigated the relationship between the gender of adult patients and HCE as well as sources of health care financing. Simple percentage distribution, cross-tabulation, a two-level random intercept model, and multinomial logit regression were used to examine the role of gender in HCE and sources of health care financing for inpatient care. Average HCE is lower for women in adult age groups, regardless of the type of disease and duration of stay in the hospital. This result remained unchanged after controlling for other background variables of the patients. Women are also discriminated against more when health care has to be paid for by borrowing, sale of assets, or contributions from friends and relatives (distressed financing). Multinomial logit results show that the probability of distressed financing is less for females than for males (borrowing: β = −0.27; confidence interval [CI], −0.37 to −0.17; P = .001; selling assets/contribution from friends and relatives: β = −0.27; CI, −0.39 to −0.14; P = .001). The predicted probability of using health care financing implies that the health of adult men is considered to be more important, in terms of resorting to distressed financing, than that of adult women HCE on adult women inpatients is systematically lower than that of adult men inpatients. Further, women in India have less access to inpatient care through distressed HCFS.
Gender, Health care finance, Distressed financing, India
Gender disparities in health care expenditures and financing strategies (HCFS) for inpatient care in India
Moradhvaja and Nandita Saikiaa,b,∗
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability, which may be a source of productivity losses. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of OA, namely through pain and physical disability, on early exit from work and to calculate its economic burden.
We analysed data from the national, cross-sectional, population-based EpiReumaPt study (Sep2011-Dec2013) in which 10,661 individuals were randomly surveyed in order to capture all cases of rheumatic diseases. We used all participants aged 50-64, near the official retirement age, who were clinically validated by experienced rheumatologists (n = 1286), including OA cases. A national database was used to calculate productivity values by gender, age and region, using the human capital approach. The impact of OA on the likelihood of early exit from work and the population attributable fractions used to calculate due economic burden (indirect costs) were obtained at the individual level by logistic regression. All results were based on weighted data.
Almost one third of the Portuguese population aged 50-64 had OA (29.7%; men: 16.2% and women: 43.5%) and more than half were out of paid work (51.8%). Only knee OA is associated with early exit from work (OR: 2.25; 95%CI: 1.42-3.59; p = 0.001), whereas other OA locations did not reach any statistical difference. Furthermore, we observed an association between self-reported longstanding musculoskeletal pain (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.07-2.23; p = 0.02) and pain interference (OR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.62; p = 0.001) with early exit from work. We also detected a clear relationship between levels of disability, measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the probability of work withdrawal. The estimated annual cost of early exit from work attributable to OA was €656 million (€384 per capita; €1294 per OA patient and €2095 per OA patient out-of-work).
In this study, we observed an association between OA and early exit from work, largely dependent on pain and disability. This relationship translates into a meaningful economic burden amounting to approximately 0.4% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The high prevalence and the impact of this disabling chronic disease highlight the need to prioritize policies targeting early exit from work in OA.
Exit from work, Early Retirement, Work disability, Indirect costs, Cost of illness, Economic impact, Health Survey, Osteoarthritis
The impact of osteoarthritis on early exit from work: results from a population-based study
Pedro A. Laires,corresponding author1,2,3 Helena Canhão,3,4 Ana M. Rodrigues,1,3 Monica Eusebio,3 Miguel Gouveia,5 and Jaime C. Branco3,4,6