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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:62512-20-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Heat stress negatively affects milk quality altering its nutritive value and cheese making properties. This study aimed at assessing the impact of seasonal microclimatic conditions on milk quality of Friesian cows. The study was carried out in a dairy farm from June 2013 to May 2014 at Beni-Suef province, Egypt. Inside the barn daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded and used to calculate the daily maximum temperature-humidity index (mxTHI), which was used as indicator of the degree of heat stress. The study was carried out in three periods according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) recorded: from June 2013 to September 2013 (mxTHI>78), from October 2013 to November 2013 (mxTHI 72-78) and from December 2013 to April 2014 (mxTHI<72). Eighty Friesian lactating dairy cows were monitored in each period. The three groups of cows were balanced for days in milk and parity. Milk quality data referred to somatic cell count, total coliform count (TCC), faecal coliform count (FCC), Escherichia coli count, percentage of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, percentage of fat, protein, lactose, total solid and solid non-fat. Increasing THI was associated with a significant decrease in all milk main components. An increase of TCC, FCC, and E. coli count from mxTHI<72 to mxTHI>78 was observed. In addition, the isolation rate of both S. aureus and E. coli increased when the mxTHI increased. The results of this study show the seriousness of the negative effects of hot conditions on milk composition and mammary gland pathogens. These facts warrant the importance of adopting mitigation strategies to alleviate negative consequences of heat stress in dairy cows and for limiting related economic losses.
Dairy Cows, Milk Composition, Coliforms, Temperature-humidity Index
Impact of Seasonal Conditions on Quality and Pathogens Content of Milk in Friesian Cows
Mohamed M. A. Zeinhom,* Rabie L. Abdel Aziz,1 Asmaa N. Mohammed,2 and Umberto Bernabucci3
Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV). Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae) across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.
host-seeking rate, nestling, nest mosquito trap, arbovirus, West Nile virus
Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA
Kevin A. Caillou?t,1,2,* Charles W. Robertson,2,† David C. Wheeler,3,† Nicholas Komar,4,† and Lesley P. Bulluck2
PEPFAR, national governments, and other stakeholders are investing unprecedented resources to provide HIV treatment in developing countries. This study reports empirical data on costs and cost trends in a large sample of HIV treatment sites.
In 2006-2007, we conducted cost analyses at 43 PEPFAR-supported outpatient clinics providing free comprehensive HIV treatment in Botswana, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Vietnam.
We collected data on HIV treatment costs over consecutive 6-month periods from scale-up of dedicated HIV treatment services at each site. The study included all patients receiving HIV treatment and care at study sites (62,512 ART and 44,394 pre-ART patients). Outcomes were costs per-patient and total program costs, subdivided by major cost categories.
Median annual economic costs were $202 (2009 USD) for pre-ART patients and $880 for ART patients. Excluding ARVs, per-patient ART costs were $298. Care for newly initiated ART patients cost 15-20% more than for established patients. Per-patient costs dropped rapidly as sites matured, with per-patient ART costs dropping 46.8% between first and second 6-month periods after the beginning of scale-up, and an additional 29.5% the following year. PEPFAR provided 79.4% of funding for service delivery, and national governments provided 15.2%.
Treatment costs vary widely between sites, and high early costs drop rapidly as sites mature. Treatment costs vary between countries and respond to changes in ARV regimen costs and the package of services. While cost reductions may allow near-term program growth, programs need to weigh the trade-off between improving services for current patients and expanding coverage to new patients.
AIDS, HIV, Antiretroviral Therapy, Cost, Economics, Developing Countries, Resource-Limited Settings
The Cost of Providing Comprehensive HIV Treatment in PEPFAR-Supported Programs
Nicolas A Menzies,1,2 Andres A Berruti,1,2 Richard Berzon,3 Scott Filler,1 Robert Ferris,3 Tedd V Ellerbrock,1 and John M Blandford1
2012 Sep 10.
Fructo-oligosaccharide DP7/GF6 belongs to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with degree of polymerization (DP=7) . Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are composed of 6 fructose units linked by (2→1)-β-glycosidic bonds and having a single D-glucosyl unit at the non-reducing end.