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Application of plant growth regulators has become one of the most important means of improving yield and quality of medicinal plants. To understand the molecular basis of phytohormone-regulated oleanolic acid metabolism, RNA-seq was used to analyze global gene expression in Achyranthes bidentata treated with 2.0 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (6-BA). Compared with untreated controls, the expression levels of 20,896 genes were significantly altered with phytohormone treatment. We found that 13071 (62.5%) unigenes were up-regulated, and a lot of differentially expressed genes involved in hormone or terpenoid biosynthesis, or transcription factors were significantly up-regulated. These results suggest that oleanolic acid biosynthesis induced by NAA and 6-BA occurs due to the expression of key genes involved in jasmonic acid signal transduction. This study is the first to analyze the production and hormonal regulation of medicinal A. bidentata metabolites at the molecular level. The results herein contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins accumulation and define strategies to improve the yield of these useful metabolites.
NAA and 6-BA promote accumulation of oleanolic acid by JA regulation in Achyranthes bidentata Bl
2020 Feb 27
Auxin treatment of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries delays ripening by inducing changes in gene expression and cell wall metabolism and could combat some deleterious climate change effects. Auxins are inhibitors of grape berry ripening and their application may be useful to delay harvest to counter effects of climate change. However, little is known about how this delay occurs. The expression of 1892 genes was significantly changed compared to the control during a 48 h time-course where the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was applied to pre-veraison grape berries. Principal component analysis showed that the control and auxin-treated samples were most different at 3 h post-treatment when approximately three times more genes were induced than repressed by NAA. There was considerable cross-talk between hormone pathways, particularly between those of auxin and ethylene. Decreased expression of genes encoding putative cell wall catabolic enzymes (including those involved with pectin) and increased expression of putative cellulose synthases indicated that auxins may preserve cell wall structure. This was confirmed by immunochemical labelling of berry sections using antibodies that detect homogalacturonan (LM19) and methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (LM20) and by labelling with the CMB3a cellulose-binding module. Comparison of the auxin-induced changes in gene expression with the pattern of these genes during berry ripening showed that the effect on transcription is a mix of changes that may specifically alter the progress of berry development in a targeted manner and others that could be considered as non-specific changes. Several lines of evidence suggest that cell wall changes and associated berry softening are the first steps in ripening and that delaying cell expansion can delay ripening providing a possible mechanism for the observed auxin effects.
Auxin; Cell walls; Gene expression; Grape ripening; Ripening; Transcriptome.
Auxin treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries delays ripening onset by inhibiting cell expansion
Silvia Dal Santo 1, Matthew R Tucker 2, Hwei-Ting Tan 2, Crista A Burbidge 3, Marianna Fasoli 4, Christine Bottcher 3, Paul K Boss 3, Mario Pezzotti 1, Christopher Davies 5
As developmental biologists in the age of genome editing, we now have access to an ever-increasing array of tools to manipulate endogenous gene expression. The auxin-inducible degradation system allows for spatial and temporal control of protein degradation via a hormone-inducible Arabidopsis F-box protein, transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1). In the presence of auxin, TIR1 serves as a substrate-recognition component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF), ubiquitinating auxin-inducible degron (AID)-tagged proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, we optimize the Caenorhabditis elegans AID system by utilizing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), an indole-free synthetic analog of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We take advantage of the photostability of NAA to demonstrate via quantitative high-resolution microscopy that rapid degradation of target proteins can be detected in single cells within 30 min of exposure. Additionally, we show that NAA works robustly in both standard growth media and physiological buffer. We also demonstrate that K-NAA, the water-soluble, potassium salt of NAA, can be combined with microfluidics for targeted protein degradation in C. elegans larvae. We provide insight into how the AID system functions in C. elegans by determining that TIR1 depends on C. elegans SKR-1/2, CUL-1, and RBX-1 to degrade target proteins. Finally, we present highly penetrant defects from NAA-mediated degradation of the FTZ-F1 nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-25, during C. elegans uterine-vulval development. Together, this work improves our use and understanding of the AID system for dissecting gene function at the single-cell level during C. elegans development.
AID system; C. elegans; NHR-25; SCF complex; microfluidics; synthetic auxin.
Rapid Degradation of Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins at Single-Cell Resolution with a Synthetic Auxin
Michael A Q Martinez 1, Brian A Kinney 2, Taylor N Medwig-Kinney 1, Guinevere Ashley 3, James M Ragle 3, Londen Johnson 3, Joseph Aguilera 3, Christopher M Hammell 2, Jordan D Ward 3, David Q Matus 4
2020 Jan 7;