Pale yellow liquid/Oil
Zingiber officinale Roscoe/ Ginger
-Shogaol is an antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer. -Shogaol inhibits COX-2 with an IC50 of 7.5 μM and has antiproliferation activity.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:36752-54-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
A fundamental question in comparative genomics concerns the identification of mechanisms that underpin chromosomal change. In an attempt to shed light on the dynamics of mammalian genome evolution, we analyzed the distribution of syntenic blocks, evolutionary breakpoint regions, and evolutionary breakpoints taken from public databases available for seven eutherian species (mouse, rat, cattle, dog, pig, cat, and horse) and the chicken, and examined these for correspondence with human fragile sites and tandem repeats.
Our results confirm previous investigations that showed the presence of chromosomal regions in the human genome that have been repeatedly used as illustrated by a high breakpoint accumulation in certain chromosomes and chromosomal bands. We show, however, that there is a striking correspondence between fragile site location, the positions of evolutionary breakpoints, and the distribution of tandem repeats throughout the human genome, which similarly reflect a non-uniform pattern of occurrence.
These observations provide further evidence that certain chromosomal regions in the human genome have been repeatedly used in the evolutionary process. As a consequence, the genome is a composite of fragile regions prone to reorganization that have been conserved in different lineages, and genomic tracts that do not exhibit the same levels of evolutionary plasticity.
Is mammalian chromosomal evolution driven by regions of genome fragility?
Aurora Ruiz-Herrera,1 Jose Castresana,2 and Terence J Robinsoncorresponding author1
Coadministration of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) with fat may improve bioavailability and antimalarial efficacy, but it might also increase toxicity. There have been no studies of these potential effects in the pediatric age group. The tolerability, safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of DHA-PQ administered with or without 8.5 g fat were investigated in 30 Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 10 years diagnosed with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Three daily 2.5:11.5-mg-base/kg doses were given with water (n = 14, group A) or milk (n = 16, group B), with regular clinical/laboratory assessment and blood sampling over 42 days. Plasma PQ was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and DHA was assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models for PQ and DHA were developed using a population-based approach. DHA-PQ was generally well tolerated, and initial fever and parasite clearance were prompt. There were no differences in the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) for PQ (median, 41,906 versus 36,752 μg · h/liter in groups A and B, respectively; P = 0.24) or DHA (4,047 versus 4,190 μg · h/liter; P = 0.67). There were also no significant between-group differences in prolongation of the corrected electrocardiographic QT interval (QTc) initially during follow-up, but the QTc tended to be higher in group B children at 24 h (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 15 ± 10 versus 6 ± 15 ms0.5 in group A, P = 0.067) and 168 h (10 ± 18 versus 1 ± 23 ms0.5, P = 0.24) when plasma PQ concentrations were relatively low. A small amount of fat does not change the bioavailability of DHA-PQ in children, but a delayed persistent effect on ventricular repolarization cannot be excluded.
Effect of Coadministered Fat on the Tolerability, Safety, and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Papua New Guinean Children with Uncomplicated Malaria
B. R. Moore,a,b J. M. Benjamin,b S. Salman,a S. Griffin,b E. Ginny,b M. Page-Sharp,c L. J. Robinson,b,d,e P. Siba,f K. T. Batty,c I. Mueller,d,e,g and T. M. E. Daviscorresponding authora
Cholinergic inhibition of cochlear hair cells via olivocochlear (OC)-efferent feedback is mediated by Ca2+ entry through α9-/α10-nicotinic receptors, but the nature of the K+ channels activated by this Ca2+ entry has been debated (Yoshida N, Hequembourg SJ, Atencio CA, Rosowski JJ, Liberman MC. J Neurophysiol 85: 84-88, 2001). A recent in vitro study (Wersinger E, McLean WJ, Fuchs PA, Pyott SJ. PLoS One 5: e13836, 2010) suggests that small-conductance (SK2) channels mediate cholinergic effects in the apical turn, whereas large-conductance (BK) channels mediate basal turn effects. Here, we measure, as a function of cochlear frequency, the magnitude of BK and SK2 expression in outer hair cells and the strength of in vivo OC suppression in BK+/+ mice vs. BK?/? lacking the obligatory α-subunit (Meredith AL, Thorneloe KS, Werner ME, Nelson MT, Aldrich RW. J Biol Chem 279: 36746-36752, 2004). Except at the extreme apical tip, we see immunostaining for both BK and SK2 in BK+/+. Correspondingly, at all testable frequencies (8-45 kHz), we see evidence for both SK2 and BK contributions to OC effects evoked by electrically stimulating the OC bundle: OC-mediated suppression was reduced, but not eliminated, at all frequencies in the BK?/? ears. The suppression remaining in BK nulls was blocked by strychnine, suggesting involvement of α9-/α10-cholinergic receptors, coupled to activation of the remaining SK2 channels.
inner ear, efferent feedback, calcium-activated channels, cholinergic
Olivocochlear suppression of outer hair cells in vivo: evidence for combined action of BK and SK2 channels throughout the cochlea
Stephane F. Maison,corresponding author1,2,3 Sonja J. Pyott,4 Andrea L. Meredith,5 and M. Charles Liberman1,2,3
2013 Mar 15