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11α-Hydroxyprogesterone (11αOHP4) and 11β-hydroxyprogesterone (11βOHP4) have been reported to be inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) type 2, together with 11β-hydroxytestosterone and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, and their C11-keto derivatives being inhibitors of 11βHSD1. Our in vitro assays in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, however, show that 11αOHP4 is a potent inhibitor of 11βHSD2 and while this steroid does not serve as a substrate for the enzyme, the aforementioned C11-oxy steroids are indeed substrates for both 11βHSD isozymes. 11βOHP4 is metabolised by 11βHSD2 yielding 11-ketoprogesterone with 11βHSD1 catalysing the reverse reaction, similar to the reduction of the other C11-oxy steroids. In the same model system, novel 11αOHP4 metabolites were detected in its conversion by steroid-5α-reductase (SRD5A) types 1 and 2 yielding 11α-hydroxydihydroprogesterone and its conversion by cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) yielding the hydroxylase product, 11α,17α-dihydroxyprogesterone, and the 17,20 lyase product, 11α-hydroxyandrostenedione. We also detected both 11αOHP4 and 11βOHP4 in prostate cancer tissue- ∼23 and ∼32 ng/g respectively with 11KP4 levels >300 ng/g. In vitro assays in PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, showed that the metabolism of 11αOHP4 and 11βOHP4 was comparable. In LNCaP cells expressing CYP17A1, 11αOHP4 and 11βOHP4 were metabolised with negligible substrate, 4%, remaining after 48 h, while the steroid substrate 11β,17α-dihydroxyprogesterone (21dF) was metabolised to C11-keto C19 steroids yielding 11-ketotestosterone. Despite the fact that 11αOHP4 is not metabolised by 11βHSD2, it is a substrate for SRD5A and CYP17A1, yielding C11α-hydroxy C19 steroids as well as the C11α-hydroxy derivative of 21dF-the latter associated with clinical conditions characterised by androgen excess. With our data showing that 11αOHP4 is present at high levels in prostate cancer tissue, the steroid may serve as a precursor to unique C11α-hydroxy C19 steroids. The potential impact of 11αOHP4 and its metabolites on human pathophysiology can however only be fully assessed once C11α-hydroxyl metabolite levels are comprehensively analysed.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
11-hydroxyprogesterone (11OHP4, 4-PREGNEN-11β-OL-3,20-DIONE); 11-ketoprogesterone (11KP4, 4-PREGNEN-3,11,20-TRIONE); 11-ketotestosterone (11KT, 4-ANDROSTEN-17β-OL-3,11-DIONE); 21-deoxycortisol (21-desoxycortisol, 21dF, 4-PREGNEN-11β,17-DIOL-3,20-DIONE); 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD, 21-OH CAH); Congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH); Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1, P450c17); LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells
11α-Hydroxyprogesterone, a potent 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, is metabolised by steroid-5α-reductase and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase to produce C11α-derivatives of 21-deoxycortisol and 11-hydroxyandrostenedione in vitro
Gent R1, du Toit T1, Swart AC2.
Increased circulating 11β-hydroxyprogesterone (11OHP4), biosynthesised in the human adrenal, is associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels are also increased, with the steroid’s metabolism to dihydrotestosterone in the backdoor pathway contributing to hyperandrogenic clinical conditions. In this study we investigated the in vitro biosynthesis and downstream metabolism of 11OHP4. Both cytochrome P450 11β-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase catalyse the biosynthesis of 11OHP4 from progesterone (P4) which is converted to 11-ketoprogesterone (11KP4) by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, while type 1 readily catalysed the reverse reaction. We showed in HEK-293 cells that these C11-oxy C21 steroids were metabolised by steroidogenic enzymes in the backdoor pathway-5α-reductase (SRD5A) and 3α-hydroxysteroid type 3 (AKR1C2) converted 11OHP4 to 5α-pregnan-11β-ol,3,20-dione and 5α-pregnan-3α,11β-diol-20-one, while 11KP4 was converted to 5α-pregnan-3,11,20-trione and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-11,20-dione (alfaxalone), respectively. Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase catalysed the hydroxylase and lyase reaction to produce the C11-oxy C19 steroids demonstrated in the conversion of alfaxalone to 11-oxy steroids demonstrated in the conversion of alfaxalone to 11ketoandrosterone. In LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell model endogenously expressing the relevant enzymes, 11OHP4 and 11KP4 were metabolised to the potent androgen, 11-ketodihydrotestosterone (11KDHT), thus suggesting the C11-oxy C21 steroids contribute to the pool of validating the in vitro biosynthesis of C11-oxy C19 steroids from C11-oxy C21 steroids. The in vitro reduction of 11KP4 at C3 and C5 by AKR1C2 and SRD5A has confirmed the metabolic route of the urinary metabolite, 3α,20α-dihydroxy-5β-pregnan-11-one. Although our assays have demonstrated the conversion of 11OHP4 and 11KP4 by steroidogenic enzymes in the backdoor pathway yielding 11KDHT, thus suggesting the C11-oxy C21 steroids contribute to the pool of potent androgens, the in vivo confirmation of this metabolic route remains challenging.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2); 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD); 21-Hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD); 5α-reductase (SRD5A); Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1)
The in vitro metabolism of 11β-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-ketoprogesterone to 11-ketodihydrotestosterone in the backdoor pathway.
van Rooyen D1, Gent R1, Barnard L1, Swart AC2.
Various corticosteroids are prepared by using 11α,17α-diOH-progesterone (11α,17α-diOH-PROG) as an important intermediate and raw material. Hence, strains that can improve the yields of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG should be screened. Cunninghamella elegans CICC40250 was singled out from five common 11α hydroxylation strains. The reaction parameters of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production were also investigated. C. elegans CICC40250 could efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α-OH-PROG) at C-11α position. This strain could also effectively convert 11α,17α-diOH-PROG at high substrate concentrations (up to 30g/L). After the coenzyme precursor glucose was added, the rate of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG formation reached 84.2%, which was 11.4% higher than that of the control group. Our study established a simple and feasible mechanism to increase 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production levels. This mechanism involves C. elegans CICC40250 that can be efficiently applied to induce the biotransformation of 17α-OH-PROG with a hydroxylation biocatalytic ability.
Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
17α-Hydroxy progesterone; Biotransformation; Cunninghamella elegans; Hydroxylation
Screening for strains with 11α-hydroxylase activity for 17α-hydroxy progesterone biotransformation.
Gao Q1, Qiao Y1, Shen Y2, Wang M3, Wang X1, Liu Y1.