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1,2-Bis(4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridin-4-yl)ethane

$164

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O1105

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 96897-04-0

  • Formula : C24H22N4

  • Molecular Weight : 366.5

  • PUBCHEM ID : 15771932

  • Volume : 5mg

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Catalogue Number

BN-O1105

Analysis Method

Specification

98%(HPLC)

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

366.5

Appearance

Botanical Source

Structure Type

Category

SMILES

CC1=CC(=NC=C1)C2=NC=CC(=C2)CCC3=CC(=NC=C3)C4=NC=CC(=C4)C

Synonyms

1,2-bis(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl-4-yl)ethane/1,2-bis(4-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinyl))ethane/1,2-bis[4-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]ethane/1,2-Bis(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridin-4-yl)ethane/4,4''-(1,2-Ethanediyl)bis(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine)/1,2-bis(4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridyl-4-yl)ethane/1,2-bis(4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridine]-4-yl)ethane/2,2'-Bipyridine, 4,4'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[4'-methyl-/4,4'-(1,2-Ethanediyl)bis(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine)/B3973

IUPAC Name

2-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4-[2-[2-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl]ethyl]pyridine

Density

1.1±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Flash Point

233.5±21.7 °C

Boiling Point

540.0±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

InChl

InChl Key

KLTATORHZNMNDJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:96897-04-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

No Technical Documents Available For This Product.

PMID

23855772

Abstract

Forces experienced during feeding are thought to strongly influence the morphology of the vertebrate mandible; in vivo strain data are the most direct evidence for deformation of the mandible induced by these loading regimes. Although many studies have documented bone strains in the mammalian mandible, no information is available on strain magnitudes, orientations or patterns in the sauropsid lower jaw during feeding. Furthermore, strain gage experiments record the mechanical response of bone at a few locations, not across the entire mandible. In this paper, we present bone strain data recorded at various sites on the lower jaw of Alligator mississippiensis during in vivo feeding experiments. These data are used to understand how changes in loading regime associated with changes in bite location are related to changes in strain regime on the working and balancing sides of the mandible. Our results suggest that the working side mandible is bent dorsoventrally and twisted about its long-axis during biting, and the balancing side experiences primarily dorsoventral bending. Strain orientations are more variable on the working side than on the balancing side with changes in bite point and between experiments; the balancing side exhibits higher strain magnitudes. In the second part of this paper, we use principal strain orientations and magnitudes recorded in vivo to evaluate a finite element model of the alligator mandible. Our comparison demonstrates that strain orientations and mandibular deformation predicted by the model closely match in vivo results; however, absolute strain magnitudes are lower in the finite element model.

KEYWORDS

biomechanics, crocodilians, feeding, validation

Title

In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis

Author

Laura B Porro,1,2 Keith A Metzger,3 Jose Iriarte-Diaz,1 and Callum F Ross1

Publish date

2013 Sep;

PMID

31139202

Abstract

DNA barcoding of herbal medicines has been mainly concerned with authentication of products in trade and has raised awareness of species substitution and adulteration. More recently DNA barcodes have been included in pharmacopoeias, providing tools for regulatory purposes. The commonly used DNA barcoding regions in plants often fail to resolve identification to species level. This can be especially challenging in evolutionarily complex groups where incipient or reticulate speciation is ongoing. In this study, we take a phylogenomic approach, analyzing whole plastid sequences from the evolutionarily complex genus Berberis in order to develop DNA barcodes for the medicinally important species Berberis aristata. The phylogeny reconstructed from an alignment of ∼160 kbp of chloroplast DNA for 57 species reveals that the pharmacopoeial species in question is polyphyletic, complicating development of a species-specific DNA barcode. Instead we propose a DNA barcode that is clade specific, using our phylogeny to define Operational Phylogenetic Units (OPUs). The plastid alignment is then reduced to small, informative DNA regions including nucleotides diagnostic for these OPUs. These DNA barcodes were tested on commercial samples, and shown to discriminate plants in trade and therefore to meet the requirement of a pharmacopoeial standard. The proposed method provides an innovative approach for inferring DNA barcodes for evolutionarily complex groups for regulatory purposes and quality control.

KEYWORDS

DNA barcoding, next-generation sequencing, operational phylogenetic units, herbal medicines, Berberis, pharmacopoeia, pharmacopoeial standards, plastome

Title

Phylogenomic Approaches to DNA Barcoding of Herbal Medicines: Developing Clade-Specific Diagnostic Characters for Berberis

Author

Marco Kreuzer,1,* Caroline Howard,2 Bhaskar Adhikari,3 Colin A. Pendry,3 and Julie A. Hawkins1

Publish date

2019;

PMID

31492636

Abstract

The mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes are organized into supercomplexes (SCs) of defined stoichiometry, which have been proposed to regulate electron flux via substrate channeling. We demonstrate that CoQ trapping in the isolated SC I+III2 limits complex (C)I turnover, arguing against channeling. The SC structure, resolved at up to 3.8 a in four distinct states, suggests that CoQ oxidation may be rate limiting because of unequal access of CoQ to the active sites of CIII2. CI shows a transition between “closed” and “open” conformations, accompanied by the striking rotation of a key transmembrane helix. Furthermore, the state of CI affects the conformational flexibility within CIII2, demonstrating crosstalk between the enzymes. CoQ was identified at only three of the four binding sites in CIII2, suggesting that interaction with CI disrupts CIII2 symmetry in a functionally relevant manner. Together, these observations indicate a more nuanced functional role for the SCs.

KEYWORDS

bioenergetics, supercomplex, respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria, complex i, cytochrome bc1 complex, protein structure, oxidoreductas, cryoEM

Title

Structures of Respiratory Supercomplex I+III2 Reveal Functional and Conformational Crosstalk

Author

James A. Letts, Karol Fiedorczuk, Gianluca Degliesposti, Mark Skehel, Leonid A. Sazanov

Publish date

2019 Sep 19;


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