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The aim was to evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS), MS individual components and 32 kinds of MS specific component combinations on all-cause mortality risk in a fixed cohort of MJ check-up population.
We observed the events of death in a fixed cohort, where the population was composed of 45,542 individuals aged 35-74 who were examined at MJ Health check-up Center in 1997 as baseline examination, and were followed up to 2005. Median duration of follow-up was 7.44 years. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Educational Program (the revised NCEP-ATPIII for Asian in 2004), the prevalence of MS was standardized according to China’s fifth census data. We constructed common Cox regression model, simultaneously adjusting the classic risk factors (such as age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, family history, etc.) to examine the relationship between MS, MS individual components and 32 kinds of MS specific component combinations on the occurrence of death with the fixed cohort.
The standardized prevalence of MS was 29.75% (male: 30.36%, female: 29.51%). There were 1,749 persons who died during the median 7.44-years follow-up, the mortality rate was 46 per 10,000 person years. The mortality rates were 71 and 35 per 10,000 person years for those with and without MS, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex and classical risk factors, compared with subjects without MS, the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14-1.40). The all-cause mortality were more highly significant than other combinations (P <0.05) when the following combinations exist: “elevated blood pressure”, “elevated fasting plasma glucose + low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol”, “elevated blood pressure + elevated triglyceride + elevated fasting plasma glucose”, “elevated fasting plasma glucose + low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol + elevated blood pressure + elevated triglyceride”. After adjusting age, sex and classical risk factors, the HRs for those with 0 to 5 components were 1, 1.22, 1.25, 1.33, 1.66, and 1.92, respectively. There was a significant dose-response relationship (P for liner trend <0.001) between the number of MS components and the risk of all-cause mortality in the overall fixed cohort sample. Conclusion In a large scale middle-aged Taiwan check-up population, MS may be associated with a much higher risk for all-cause mortality. These results may underline the fact that MS is a non-homogeneous syndrome and have a significant impact on detecting high-risk individuals suffering from metabolic disorders for preventing and controlling death.
The Cohort Study on Prediction of Incidence of All-Cause Mortality by Metabolic Syndrome
Zhixia Li, Xinghua Yang, Jun Yang, Zhirong Yang, Shengfeng Wang, Feng Sun, Siyan Zhan
This data article aimed to investigate the quality of drinking water of Qorveh and Dehgolan Counties in Kurdistan province based on the water quality index (WQI) and agricultural quality index based on RSC, PI, KR, MH, Na, SAR and SSP indices. Also, Piper diagram was used to determine hydro chemical features of the groundwater area. The calculation of WQI for groundwater samples indicated that 36% of the samples could be considered as excellent water and 64% of the samples were classified as good water category. The results of the calculated indices for agricultural water quality indicate that water quality in all collected samples are in a good and excellent category. The Piper classification showed that dominant type of groundwater hydro chemical faces of region was calcium bicarbonate (Ca-HCO3?).
Groundwater, WQI, Irrigation, Kurdistan, Iran
Data on drinking water quality using water quality index (WQI) and assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes in Qorveh&Dehgolan, Kurdistan, Iran
Hamed Soleimani, Omid Nasri, Boshra Ojaghi, Hasan Pasalari, Mona Hosseini, Bayram Hashemzadeh, Ali Kavosi, Safdar Masoumi, Majid Radfard, Amir Adibzadeh, Ghasem Kiani Feizabadi
Evidence suggests that EMS-physician-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) may be associated with improved outcomes, yet randomized controlled trials are not available. The goal of this meta-analysis was to determine the association between EMS-physician- versus paramedic-guided CPR and survival after OOHCA.
Methods and Results
Studies that compared EMS-physician- versus paramedic-guided CPR in OOHCA published until June 2014 were systematically searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. All studies were required to contain survival data. Data on study characteristics, methods, and as well as survival outcomes were extracted. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis due to a high degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I 2 = 44 %). Return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC], survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge were the outcome measures.
Out of 3,385 potentially eligible studies, 14 met the inclusion criteria. In the pooled analysis (n = 126,829), EMS-physician-guided CPR was associated with significantly improved outcomes compared to paramedic-guided CPR: ROSC 36.2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 31.0 – 41.7 %) vs. 23.4 % (95 % CI 18.5 – 29.2 %) (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95 % CI 1.36 – 2.63, p < 0.001); survival to hospital admission 30.1 % (95 % CI 24.2 - 36.7 %) vs. 19.2 % (95 % CI 12.7 - 28.1 %) (pooled OR 1.78, 95 % CI 0.97 - 3.28, p = 0.06); and survival to discharge 15.1 % (95 % CI 14.6 - 15.7 %) vs. 8.4 % (95 % CI 8.2 - 8.5 %) (pooled OR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.48 - 2.79, p < 0.001). Conclusions This systematic review suggests that EMS-physician-guided CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with improved survival outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1156-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Outcomes, Emergency medical service physicians, Paramedics
Influence of EMS-physician presence on survival after out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: systematic review and meta-analysis
Bernd W. Bottiger,corresponding author1 Michael Bernhard,2 Jurgen Knapp,3 and Peter Nagele4