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Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are associated with a myriad of negative health effects for both mother and child. However, less is known regarding social determinants for SHS exposure, which may differ from those of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP). To identify social determinants for SHS exposure only, MSDP only, and MSDP and SHS exposure, data were obtained from all pregnant women (18-54 years; N = 726) in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2014-2015). Multiple logistic regressions were conducted using SAS 9.4. Smoke exposure during pregnancy was common; 23.0% reported SHS exposure only, 6.1% reported MSDP only, and 11.8% reported both SHS exposure and MSDP. Results demonstrate that relationships between smoke exposure during pregnancy and social determinants vary by type of exposure. Women at risk for any smoke exposure during pregnancy include those who are unmarried and allow the use of combustible tobacco products within the home. Those who are at higher risk for SHS exposure include those who are younger in age, and those who are earlier in their pregnancy. Those who are at higher risk for maternal smoking include those with fair/poor mental health status and those who believe that others’ view tobacco use more positively. These results suggest the need for implementing more comprehensive policies that promote smoke-free environments. Implementing these strategies have the potential to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes associated with tobacco smoke exposure.
Pregnancy, Maternal smoking, Secondhand smoke, Social determinants
Social determinants of smoke exposure during pregnancy: Findings from waves 1 & 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study
Elizabeth K. Do,a,⁎ Tiffany L. Green,a Elizabeth C. Prom-Wormley,b and Bernard F. Fuemmelera
Until recently, most phylogenetic and population genetics studies of nonhuman primates have relied on mitochondrial DNA and/or a small number of nuclear DNA markers, which can limit our understanding of primate evolutionary and population history. Here, we describe a cost-effective reduced representation method (ddRAD-seq) for identifying and genotyping large numbers of SNP loci for taxa from across the New World monkeys, a diverse radiation of primates that shared a common ancestor ~20-26 mya. We also estimate, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships among 15 of the 22 currently-recognized genera of New World monkeys using ddRAD-seq SNP data using both maximum likelihood and quartet-based coalescent methods. Our phylogenetic analyses robustly reconstructed three monophyletic clades corresponding to the three families of extant platyrrhines (Atelidae, Pitheciidae and Cebidae), with Pitheciidae as basal within the radiation. At the genus level, our results conformed well with previous phylogenetic studies and provide additional information relevant to the problematic position of the owl monkey (Aotus) within the family Cebidae, suggesting a need for further exploration of incomplete lineage sorting and other explanations for phylogenetic discordance, including introgression. Our study additionally provides one of the first applications of next-generation sequencing methods to the inference of phylogenetic history across an old, diverse radiation of mammals and highlights the broad promise and utility of ddRAD-seq data for molecular primatology.
A RAD-sequencing approach to genome-wide marker discovery, genotyping, and phylogenetic inference in a diverse radiation of primates
Lina M. Valencia, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,* Amely Martins, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Software,1,2 Edgardo M. Ortiz, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Validation,3 and Anthony Di Fiore, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - original draft1 Tzen-Yuh Chiang, Editor
Amplification and eventual elimination of dispersed repeats, especially those of the retroelement origin, account for most of the profound size variability observed among plant genomes. In most higher plants investigated so far, differential accumulation of various families of elements contributes to these differences. Here we report the identification of giant Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons from the legume plant Vicia pannonica, which alone make up ∼38% of the genome of this species. These retrotransposons have structural features of the Ogre elements previously identified in the genomes of pea and Medicago. These features include extreme size (25 kb), the presence of an extra ORF upstream of the gag-pol region, and a putative intron dividing the prot and rt coding sequences. The Ogre elements are evenly dispersed on V. pannonica chromosomes except for terminal regions containing satellite repeats, their individual copies show extraordinary sequence similarity, and at least part of them are transcriptionally active, which suggests their recent amplification. Similar elements were also detected in several other Vicia species but in most cases in significantly lower numbers. However, there was no obvious correlation of the abundance of Ogre sequences with the genome size of these species.
Significant Expansion of Vicia pannonica Genome Size Mediated by Amplification of a Single Type of Giant Retroelement
Pavel Neumann,*† Andrea Kobližkova,* Alice Navratilova,* and Jiři Macas*,1