14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is an analogue of Andrographolide that can be isolated from A. paniculata. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide inhibits NF-κB activation.
Methanol; Water; DMSO; DMF
519.6±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:42895-58-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Caffeine, the world’s most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60-90 minutes) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition for unassociated words were tested after a 7hr retention period (with a between-session nap or drug intervention). A second, different, word list was administered post-intervention and memory was tested after a 20min retention period. The non-declarative tasks (finger tapping task and texture discrimination task) were trained before the intervention and then retested afterwards. Naps enhanced recall of words after a 7hr and 20min retention interval relative to both caffeine and placebo. Caffeine significantly impaired motor learning compared to placebo and naps. Napping produced robust perceptual learning compared with placebo; however, naps and caffeine were not significantly different. These findings provide evidence of the limited benefits of caffeine for memory improvement compared with napping. We hypothesize that impairment from caffeine may be restricted to tasks that contain explicit information; whereas strictly implicit learning is less compromised.
Comparing the benefits of Caffeine, Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory
Sara C. Mednick, Ph.D.,1 Denise J. Cai, M.A.,3 Jennifer Kanady, B.S.,1 and Sean P.A. Drummond, Ph.D.2
2009 Nov 3.
We enrolled 500 highly myopic eyes and 50 controls in this hospital-based prospective cohort study. The fixation ellipse angle and area in terms of the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) were measured with Macular Integrity Assessment microperimetry. Optic disc tilt and rotation were evaluated with retinal images. The associations between fixation and optic disc changes were assessed. Both 63% and 95% BCEA correlated positively with axial length (AL) (both r = 0.230, P = 0.001) in highly myopic group, and were significantly higher than the control group (both P < 0.001). The direction of fixation ellipse presented clockwise rotation in the right eyes and anti-clockwise rotation in the left eyes with the increase of AL in highly myopic group (AL ≥30 vs <30 mm: OD 76.12 ± 51.17°: vs 90.60° ± 51.28°, P = 0.029; OS 94.73 ± 57.45° vs 87.82 ± 55.15°, P = 0.371). The angle between the long axis of the fixation ellipse and the long axis of the optic disc (AngleF?D) distributed in various directions: 0-30° (34.6% almost parallel) ?60-90° (34.4% almost vertical) >30-60° (31% oblique). AngleF?D increased slightly with the AL (r = 0.105, P = 0.024). In highly myopic eyes, fixation stability decreased with the AL, and superior rotation of the fixation ellipse increased with AL. The long axis of fixation ellipse and the long axis of optic disc became less parallel to each other with increasing AL. Our data may provide clues for improvement of fixation evaluation designs of biometric instruments.
Subject terms: Refractive errors, Epidemiology
Fixation Characteristics in Highly Myopic Eyes: the Shanghai High Myopia Study
Xiangjia Zhu,#1,2,3,4,5 Wenwen He,#1,2,3,4,5 Keke Zhang,1,2,3,4,5 Yinglei Zhang,1,2,3,4,5 Qi Fan,1,2,3,4,5 and Yi Lucorresponding author1,2,3,4,5
The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity.
For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI) and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25) and obese (BMI > 30) and the biomass due to overweight and obesity.
In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25), a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass). Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass). North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults.
Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth.
The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass
Sarah Catherine Walpole,corresponding author1 David Prieto-Merino,2 Phil Edwards,2 John Cleland,2 Gretchen Stevens,3 and Ian Roberts2