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The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.
Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification
Iram Gull, 1 , * Attia Javed, 1 Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, 1 Roohi Mushtaq, 2 and Muhammad Amin Athar 2
Approximately 190,000 Americans are diagnosed with non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) annually, and about half have metastatic (Stage IV) disease. These patients have historically had poor survival prognosis, but several new therapies introduced since 2000 provide options for improved outcomes. The objectives of this study were to quantify survival gains from 1990, when best supportive care (BSC) only was standard, to 2015 and to estimate the impact of expanded use of systemic therapies in clinically appropriate patients.
Materials and Methods.
We developed a simulation model to estimate survival gains for patients with metastatic NSCLC from 1990-2015. Survival estimates were derived from major clinical trials and extrapolated to a lifetime horizon. Proportions of patients receiving available therapies were derived from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and a commercial treatment registry. We also estimated gains in overall survival (OS) in scenarios in which systemic therapy use increased by 10% and 30% relative to current use.
From 1990-2015, one‐year survival proportion increased by 14.1% and mean per‐patient survival improved by 4.2 months (32,700 population life years). Increasing treated patients by 10% or 30% increased OS by 5.1 months (39,700 population life years) and 6.9 months (53,800 population life years), respectively.
Although survival remains poor in metastatic NSCLC relative to other common cancers, meaningful progress in per‐patient and population‐level outcomes has been realized over the past 25 years. These advances can be improved even further by increasing use of systemic therapies in the substantial proportion of patients who are suitable for treatment yet who currently receive BSC only.
Implications for Practice.
Approximately 93,500 Americans are diagnosed with metastatic non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) annually. Historically, these patients have had poor survival prognosis, but newer therapies provide options for improved outcomes. This simulation modeling study quantified metastatic NSCLC survival gains from 1990-2015. Over this period, the one‐year survival proportion and mean per‐patient survival increased by 14.1% and 4.2 months, respectively. Though metastatic NSCLC survival remains poor, the past 25 years have brought meaningful gains. Additional gains could be realized by increasing systemic therapy use in the substantial proportion of patients who are suitable for treatment, yet currently receive only supportive care.
Non‐small cell lung cancer, Overall survival, Systemic therapy
Survival Gains from First‐Line Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Non‐Small Cell Lung Cancer in the U.S., 1990-2015: Progress and Opportunities
Joshua A. Roth, Bernardo H. L. Goulart, Arliene Ravelo, Holli Kolkey, Scott D. Ramsey
Formate dehydrogenase (NAD+ dependent) was isolated from the obligate methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. When the enzyme was isolated anaerobically, two forms of the enzyme were seen on native polyacrylamide gels, DE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 columns; they were approximately 315,000 and 155,000 daltons. The enzyme showed two subunits on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The Mr of the alpha-subunit was 53,800 +/- 2,800, and that of the beta-subunit was 102,600 +/- 3,900. The enzyme (Mr 315,000) was composed of these subunits in an apparent alpha 2 beta 2 arrangement. Nonheme iron was present at a concentration ranging from 11 to 18 g-atoms per mol of enzyme (Mr 315,000). Similar levels of acid-labile sulfide were detected. No other metals were found in stoichiometric amounts. When the enzyme was isolated aerobically, there was no cofactor requirement for NAD reduction; however, when isolated anaerobically, activity was 80 to 90% dependent on the addition of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, the addition of formate to an active, anoxic solution of formate dehydrogenase rapidly inactivated it in the absence of an electron acceptor; this activity could be reconstituted approximately 85% by 50 nM FMN. Flavin adenine dinucleotide could not replace FMN in reconstituting enzyme activity. The Kms of formate dehydrogenase for formate, NAD, and FMN were 146, 200, and 0.02 microM, respectively. “Pseudomonas oxalaticus” formate dehydrogenase, which has physical characteristics nearly identical to those of the M. trichosporium enzyme, was also shown to be inactivated under anoxic conditions by formate and reactivated by FMN. The evolutionary significance of this similarity is discussed.
Formate dehydrogenase from the methane oxidizer Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.
D C Yoch, Y P Chen, M G Hardin