Orange needle crystal
roots of Rheum palmatum
452.7±35.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:117-10-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The effects of 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), a stimulant laxative named danthron, on cell kinetics and prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated in male 8-week-old F344 rats divided into three groups, each consisting of 10 animals. The animals in groups one, two and three were respectively given diets supplemented with 0%, 0.1% and 0.2% DHAQ for 24 days. PGE2 levels in the colorectal mucosa were significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001) elevated after DHAQ treatment and showed some evidence of a dependence of DHAQ dose, consistent with the plasma PGE2 levels. BrdU-labeling indices in the large intestinal epithelium were also significantly (P < 0.01) increased, although the other portions of the gut such as the stomach and small intestine were not significantly affected. Excretion of the main urinary metabolite of PGE (PGE-MUM) was significantly (P < 0.001 or 0.01) increased whereas the urinary PGE2 concentration and total PGE2 excretion were not changed. Thus the results of the present study clearly indicate enhancement of cell proliferation by DHAQ in the large intestine epithelia, correlated with increased PGE2 levels in the large intestinal mucosa as well as the plasma, and possible support for the conclusion that quantitative analysis of urinary PGE-MUM, but not PGE2 itself, offer a useful approach for biomonitoring exposure to such stimulant laxatives.
Enhancement of Cell Proliferation and Prostaglandin Biosynthesis by 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone in the Rat Large Intestine
A Nishikawa 1 , Y Kase, T Hayakawa, T Yanagisawa, J Kanno, Y Hayashi
Complex formation between cyclodextrins and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone in buffer solution has been investigated using absorption, its second derivative (D2), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that whereas the self-association process was found for 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone alone, the monomeric form is microincluded in beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins. The interaction is more favored as the cavity size of cyclodextrins is larger, the molecule being more tightly bound with gamma- than with beta-cyclodextrin. The complex formation inhibits the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process that has already been reported for 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone alone.
Inclusion Complex Formation of 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone With Cyclodextrins in Aqueous Solution and in Solid State
G Smulevich 1 , A Feis, G Mazzi, F F Vincieri
The photoionization and dissociative photoionization mechanism of 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (1,8-DHAQ) have been investigated by infrared laser desorption/tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (IR LD/VUV PIMS) technique and theoretical calculations. Consecutive losses of two carbon monoxides and elimination of hydroxyl group are found to be the major fragmentation channels in low photon energy range. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectrum of 1,8-DHAQ was measured in the photon energy range of 8.2-15.0 eV. Adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of 1,8-DAHQ (M) and appearance energies (AEs) of the major fragments (M-CO) (+), (M-C 2O 2) (+), and (M-OH) (+) are determined to be 8.54 +/- 0.05, 10.8 +/- 0.1, 11.0 +/- 0.1, and 13.1 +/- 0.1 eV, respectively, which are in fair agreement with calculated results. The B3LYP method with the 6-31+G(d) basis set was used to study fragmentation of 1,8-DHAQ. Theoretical calculations indicate that five lowest-energy isomers of 1,8-DHAQ cations can coexist by virtue of bond rotation and intramolecular proton transfer. A number of decarbonylation and dehydroxylation processes of 1,8-DHAQ cations are well established.
Dissociative Photoionization Mechanism of 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone: An Experimental and Theoretical Study
Yang Pan 1 , Lidong Zhang, Huijun Guo, Fei Qi
2008 Oct 30
Danthron is a natural product extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb. Danthron functions in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism by activating AMPK.