Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:24512-59-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
HIV and risky alcohol use are intertwined public health issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Research supports the association between alcohol and unprotected sex, but there is limited data using event-level analysis to examine this relationship.
Using data from Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Information Surveys collected in 8 sub-Saharan African countries (Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) drunkenness (reporting male partner or both male and female partner being drunk during last sexual intercourse) at last sex was tested as a predictor of unprotected last sex among the male (n = 24,512) and female (n = 28,229) participants. Partner type, HIV test results, and the other variables were evaluated as effect modifiers of this relationship.
Drunkenness at last sex had a negative effect on the likelihood of condom use among men (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.99) and a marginally significant effect among women (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.59-1.02) in Southern Africa. However, for men in Southern Africa, this effect was primarily observed with steady partners. Contrary to predictions, in both Southern and Eastern Africa, for men, drunkenness during sex with casual partners increased the odds of condom use.
These data indicate a need to implement HIV prevention efforts that consider the role of alcohol use in precipitating unprotected sex and how it varies based upon partner type.
Africa, Alcohol, HIV
Event-level association between alcohol use and unprotected sex during last sex: evidence from population-based surveys in sub-Saharan Africa
Susan M Kienecorresponding author1,2 and SV Subramanian3
Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups.
Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15.
For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23).
In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups.
Etiology, Social determinants, Ethnicity, Psychosis
Ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis risk for migrant groups - A population cohort study
Peter Schofield,a,⁎ Malene Thygesen,c,d,e Jay Das-Munshi,b Laia Becares,f Elizabeth Cantor-Graae,g Carsten Pedersen,c,d,e and Esben Agerboc,d,e
Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are recommended for the treatment of heart failure (HF) and resistant hypertension, both common comorbidities in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study explored the clinical characteristics of, and steroidal MRA use in, patients with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and/or HF.
This retrospective cohort study used PharMetrics Plus US claims database data (October 2009-September 2014) to identify two patient populations aged ≥18 years with a first diagnosis of CKD or a first prescription for steroidal MRAs. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical events, medication use and healthcare costs were reported by population and stratified by diagnosis: CKD, CKD + T2D (DKD), CKD + HF and DKD + HF. The CKD population cohorts were further stratified by steroidal MRA treatment duration (no MRAs, < 6 and ≥ 6 months’ treatment). Results The CKD and MRA populations comprised 229,004 patients and 5899 patients, respectively. Median age and the proportion of men were similar in the CKD and MRA populations across disease cohorts. Disease burden increased across the cohorts as comorbidity and clinical event incidences increased. Hypertension was reported in 70-92% of patients, irrespective of disease cohort or population. In the CKD population, MRA use was low but increased with disease burden: CKD, 1.2%; DKD, 1.8%; CKD + HF, 6.5%; and DKD + HF, 6.6%. Moreover, MRA users presented with higher rates of comorbidities and medication use, and higher healthcare costs than MRA non-users. Longer MRA treatment duration was associated with reduced polypharmacy, lower event rates and lower healthcare costs. In the MRA population, patients almost exclusively received spironolactone (≥ 96%; median dose across all groups 25 mg; one-year persistence, ≤ 43%); up to 16% of patients had end-stage renal disease at baseline despite steroidal MRAs being contraindicated. Conclusions Steroidal MRA use was low across all cohorts, but increased with disease severity, driven particularly by HF. Steroidal MRAs were used in patients with advanced CKD, despite being contraindicated. The persistent morbidity and clinical event rates in CKD and DKD patients highlight the disease burden and the need for treatments that effectively target both cardio-vascular and kidney-related events. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12882-019-1348-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, Heart failure, Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, Real-world treatment patterns
Patient characteristics and initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease in routine clinical practice in the US: a retrospective cohort study
Michael Blankenburg,corresponding author1 Anne-Kathrin Fett,2 Seline Eisenring,3 Gabriele Haas,2 and Alain Gay4