This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Sophora viciifolia.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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We compared mutations detected in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF genes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and confirmed by Sanger sequencing with mutations that could be detected by FDA-cleared testing kits.
Paraffin-embedded tissue from 822 patients was tested for mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF by NGS. Sanger sequencing of hot spots was used with locked nucleic acid to increase sensitivity for specific hot-spot mutations. This included 442 (54%) lung cancers, 168 (20%) colorectal cancers, 29 (4%) brain tumors, 33 (4%) melanomas, 14 (2%) thyroid cancers, and 16% others (pancreas, head and neck, and cancer of unknown origin). Results were compared with the approved list of detectable mutations in FDA kits for EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF.
Of the 101 patients with EGFR abnormalities as detected by NGS, only 58 (57%) were detectable by cobas v2 and only 35 (35%) by therascreen. Therefore, 42 and 65%, respectively, more mutations were detected by NGS, including two patients with EGFR amplification. Of the 117 patients with BRAF mutation detected by NGS, 62 (53%) mutations were within codon 600, detectable by commercial kits, but 55 (47%) of the mutations were outside codon V600, detected by NGS only. Of the 321 patients with mutations in KRAS detected by NGS, 284 (88.5%) had mutations detectable by therascreen and 300 (93.5%) had mutations detectable by cobas. Therefore, 11.5 and 6.5% additional KRAS mutations were detected by NGS, respectively.
NGS provides significantly more comprehensive testing for mutations as compared with FDA-cleared kits currently available commercially.
Significant Improvement in Detecting BRAF, KRAS, and EGFR Mutations Using Next-Generation Sequencing as Compared with FDA-Cleared Kits
Wanlong Ma, Steven Brodie, Sally Agersborg, Vincent A. Funari, and Maher Albitar
We identified principal genetic alterations in 97.1% (99/102) of patients with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using integrative genetic analyses, including massive parallel sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). A total of 133 mutations were identified in the following genes in descending order: NOTCH1 (66.7%), FBXW7 (19.6%), PHF6 (15.7%), RUNX1 (12.7%), NRAS (10.8%), and DNMT3A (9.8%). Copy number alterations were most frequently detected in CDKN2B, CDKN2A, and genes on 9p21.3 in T-ALL (45.1%). Gene expression data demonstrated the downregulation of CDKN2B in most cases of T-ALL, whereas CDKN2A downregulation was mainly restricted to deletions. Additional quantitative methylation analysis demonstrated that CDKN2B downregulation stemmed from deletion and hypermethylation. Analysis of 64 patients with CDKN2B hypermethylation indicated an association with an older age of onset and early T cell precursor ALL, which involved very early arrest of T cell differentiation. Genes associated with methylation and myeloid neoplasms, including DNMT3A and NRAS, were more commonly mutated in T-ALL with CDKN2B hypermethylation. In particular, a CDKN2B biallelic deletion or high methylation level (≥45%), the age of onset, and the GATA3 and SH2B3 mutations were factors associated with a poor prognosis. This study clarifies that one of the most important genetic events in T-ALL, namely, CDKN2B downregulation, occurs mechanistically via deletion and hypermethylation. Different susceptible genetic backgrounds exist based on the CDKN2B downregulation mechanism.
Subject terms: Acute lymphocytic leukaemia, Cancer genetics
CDKN2B downregulation and other genetic characteristics in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Woori Jang,1,2 Joonhong Park,1,2 Ahlm Kwon,2 Hayoung Choi,2 Jiyeon Kim,2 Gun Dong Lee,2 Eunhee Han,1,2 Dong Wook Jekarl,1,2 Hyojin Chae,1,2 Kyungja Han,1,2 Jae-Ho Yoon,3 Seok Lee,3 Nack-Gyun Chung,4 Bin Cho,4 Myungshin Kim,corresponding author#1,2 and Yonggoo Kimcorresponding author#1,2
Genome-wide identification of Insertion/Deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in Capsicum spp. was performed through comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two Capsicum accessions, C. annuum cv. G29 and C. frutescens cv. PBC688, with the reference genome sequence of C. annuum cv. CM334. In total, we identified 1,664,770 InDels between CM334 and PBC688, 533,523 between CM334 and G29, and 1,651,856 between PBC688 and G29. From these InDels, 1605 markers of 3-49 bp in length difference between PBC688 and G29 were selected for experimental validation: 1262 (78.6%) showed polymorphisms, 90 (5.6%) failed to amplify, and 298 (18.6%) were monomorphic. For further validation of these InDels, 288 markers were screened across five accessions representing five domesticated species. Of these assayed markers, 194 (67.4%) were polymorphic, 87 (30.2%) monomorphic and 7 (2.4%) failed. We developed three interspecific InDels, which associated with three genes and showed specific amplification in five domesticated species and clearly differentiated the interspecific hybrids. Thus, our novel PCR-based InDel markers provide high application value in germplasm classification, genetic research and marker-assisted breeding in Capsicum species.
Guangjun Guo,1 Genlian Zhang,1,2 Baogui Pan,1 Weiping Diao,1 Jinbing Liu,1 Wei Ge,1 Changzhou Gao,1 Yong Zhang,3 Cheng Jiang,3 and Shubin Wangcorresponding author1