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We conducted a cohort study to clarify this relationship between asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) and pulmonary embolism (PE).
From the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified patients who had a diagnosis of asthma and a diagnosis of COPD (defined as ACOS) and concurrent treatment between January 1999 and December 2009 (ACOS cohort: n = 14,150; non-ACOS cohort: n = 55,876). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for PE of the ACOS cohort compared with the non-ACOS cohort.
Comparing the ACOS cohort with the non-ACOS cohort, the aHR of PE was 2.08 (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.56-2.76). The risk of PE was higher in ACOS cohort than non-ACOS cohort, regardless of age, sex, comorbidity, inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and oral steroids (OSs) used. For ages ranging from 20 to 65 years, the aHR of PE was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.44-4.44) in the ACOS cohort. ACOS patients using ICSs (aHR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.29-3.01) or OSs (aHR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.46-2.65), the risk of PE was higher than in the non-ACOS cohort. The risk of PE increased with the number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations necessitated, ranging from 2.32 (95% CI: 1.54-3.52) in patients having 3-9 visits to 4.20 (95% CI: 2.74-6.44) for those having >9 visits.
ACOS is associated with increased risk of PE, particularly patients with a high frequency of AE?even in young adults or people without comorbidities.
Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome Associated with Risk of Pulmonary Embolism
Jun-Jun Yeh,1,2,3 Yu-Chiao Wang,4,5 and Chia-Hung Kao6,7,8,*
Rapid advances in next-generation sequencing methods have provided new opportunities for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). The unprecedented sequencing depth provided by RNA-Seq makes it a powerful and cost-efficient method for transcriptome study, and it has been widely used in model organisms and non-model organisms to identify and quantify RNA. For non-model organisms lacking well-defined genomes, de novo assembly is typically required for downstream RNA-Seq analyses, including SNP discovery and identification of genes differentially expressed by phenotypes. Although RNA-Seq has been successfully used to sequence many non-model organisms, the results of de novo assembly from short reads can still be improved by using recent bioinformatic developments.
In this study, we used 212.6 million pair-end reads, which accounted for 16.2 Gb, to assemble the hexaploid wheat transcriptome. Two state-of-the-art assemblers, Trinity and Trans-ABySS, which use the single and multiple k-mer methods, respectively, were used, and the whole de novo assembly process was divided into the following four steps: pre-assembly, merging different samples, removal of redundancy and scaffolding. We documented every detail of these steps and how these steps influenced assembly performance to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimization, the assembled transcripts were comparable to Sanger-derived ESTs in terms of both continuity and accuracy. We also provided considerable new wheat transcript data to the community.
It is feasible to assemble the hexaploid wheat transcriptome from short reads. Special attention should be paid to dealing with multiple samples to balance the spectrum of expression levels and redundancy. To obtain an accurate overview of RNA profiling, removal of redundancy may be crucial in de novo assembly.
Optimizing de novo common wheat transcriptome assembly using short-read RNA-Seq data
Jialei Duan,1,2 Chuan Xia,1 Guangyao Zhao,1 Jizeng Jia,corresponding author1 and Xiuying Kongcorresponding author1
Cancer and Race in British Guiana1
J. F. C. Haslam