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Retroviruses undergo a high frequency of genetic alterations during the process of copying their RNA genomes. However, little is known about the replication fidelity of other elements that transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. The complete sequence of 29 independently integrated copies of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 (173,043 nt) was determined, and the mutation rate during a single cycle of replication was calculated. The observed base substitution rate of 2.5 x 10(-5) bp per replication cycle suggests that this intracellular element can mutate as rapidly as retroviruses. The pattern and distribution of errors in the Ty1 genome is nonrandom and provides clues to potential in vivo molecular mechanisms of reverse transcriptase-mediated error generation, including heterogeneous RNase H cleavage of Ty1 RNA, addition of terminal nontemplated bases, and transient dislocation and realignment of primer-templates. Overall, analysis of errors generated during Ty1 replication underscores the utility of a genetically tractable model system for the study of reverse transcriptase fidelity.
Replication infidelity during a single cycle of Ty1 retrotransposition.
A Gabriel, M Willems, E H Mules, and J D Boeke
1996 Jul 23
Afghanistan is a herpetologically understudied country with few published papers since the end of “Afghanistan’s Golden Age” from the 1930s to the 1970s. Although a detailed checklist of the herpetofauna of the country, based on exploration of herpetodiversity using biodiversity archives, has been published recently, there still exist additional historical data that have not been considered. This is the case for a so far unknown collection of lizards from Afghanistan deposited in the herpetological collection of the Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković at the University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. The material comes from field research conducted in 1972 and contains 27 specimens in seven lizard genera representing four families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae). This historical collection was examined and basic morphometric data, field data, and photographs are provided, comparing the distributional data with published datasets. Updated species distribution maps reveal new locality or province records and an important range extension for Eurylepis taeniolata Blyth, 1854 which represents the northernmost record for this species in Afghanistan. In addition, one further distribution record for the Bufotes viridis (Laurenti, 1768) complex from the same research trip is noted.
Biogeography, Bufotes , Central Asia, faunistics, historical data, museum collection, new records, Reptilia , Squamata
An unknown collection of lizards from Afghanistan
Daniel Jablonski,corresponding author1 Aleksandar Urošević,2 Marko Andjelković,2 and Georg Džukić2
Rates of spontaneous mutation per genome as measured in the laboratory are remarkably similar within broad groups of organisms but differ strikingly among groups. Mutation rates in RNA viruses, whose genomes contain ca. 10(4) bases, are roughly 1 per genome per replication for lytic viruses and roughly 0.1 per genome per replication for retroviruses and a retrotransposon. Mutation rates in microbes with DNA-based chromosomes are close to 1/300 per genome per replication; in this group, therefore, rates per base pair vary inversely and hugely as genome sizes vary from 6 x 10(3) to 4 x 10(7) bases or base pairs. Mutation rates in higher eukaryotes are roughly 0.1-100 per genome per sexual generation but are currently indistinguishable from 1/300 per cell division per effective genome (which excludes the fraction of the genome in which most mutations are neutral). It is now possible to specify some of the evolutionary forces that shape these diverse mutation rates.
Rates of spontaneous mutation.
J W Drake, B Charlesworth, D Charlesworth, and J F Crow