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The impacts of the SAMARCO iron tailing spill along more than 650 km, between the dam and the plume of the Doce River in the Atlantic, were assessed by the determination of toxic metals. The tailing spill caused a substantial increase in suspended sediment loads (up to 33,000 mg L−1), in addition to large depositions of waste along the Doce basin. The highest estimated transport of dissolved metals was observed for Fe (58.8 μg s−1), Ba (37.9 μg s−1) and Al (25.0 μg s−1). Sediments reached the highest enrichment factors (EFs) for Hg (4,234), Co (133), Fe (43), and Ni (16), whereas As (55), Ba (64), Cr (16), Cu (17), Mn (41), Pb (38) and Zn (82) highest EFs were observed for suspended particulate matter (SPM). Iron, As, Hg, Mn exceeded sediment quality guidelines. Therefore, the risk of occurrence of adverse effects is highly possible, not only due to the dam failure, but also due to the Fe mining and the artisan Au mining. Heavy rain episodes will likely cause enhanced erosion, remobilization, and transport of contaminated particles, sustaining high inputs of SPM and metals for the years to come and threatening the ecosystem services.
The environmental impacts of one of the largest tailing dam failures worldwide
Vanessa Hatje,corresponding author1 Rodrigo M. A. Pedreira,1 Carlos Eduardo de Rezende,2 Carlos Augusto Franca Schettini,3 Gabriel Cotrim de Souza,4 Danieli Canaver Marin,5 and Peter Christian Hackspacher5
Morphological, biological, and genetic characteristics of a virulent Siphoviridae phage, named vB-EcoS-95, is reported. This phage was isolated from urban sewage. It was found to infect some Escherichia coli strains giving clear plaques. The genome of this phage is composed of 50,910 bp and contains 89 ORFs. Importantly, none of the predicted ORFs shows any similarity with known pathogenic factors that would prevent its use in medicine. Genome sequence analysis of vB-EcoS-95 revealed 74% similarity to genomic sequence of Shigella phage pSf-1. Compared to pSf-1, phage vb-EcoS-95 does not infect Shigella strains and has an efficient bacteriolytic activity against some E. coli strains. One-step growth analysis revealed that this phage has a very short latent period (4 min), and average burst size of 115 plaque forming units per cell, which points to its high infectivity of host cells and strong lytic activity. The bacteriolytic effect of vB-EcoS-95 was tested also on biofilm-producing strains. These results indicate that vB-EcoS-95 is a newly discovered E. coli phage that may be potentially used to control the formation of biofilms.
bacteriophage, coliphage, lytic development, genomic analysis, biofilm
Characterization of Bacteriophage vB-EcoS-95, Isolated From Urban Sewage and Revealing Extremely Rapid Lytic Development
Gracja Topka,1 Sylwia Bloch,1 Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk,1 Tomasz Gasior,2 Agata Jurczak-Kurek,3 Agnieszka Necel,1 Aleksandra Dydecka,1 Malwina Richert,4 Grzegorz Węgrzyn,1 and Alicja Węgrzyn2,*
Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a severe disease of citrus. Xcc presents broad spectrum of citrus hosts including economically important species whereas X. fuscans subsp. aurantifolii-type C (XauC) causes a milder disease and only infects Citrus aurantifolia. Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of the disaccharide trehalose, a sugar that has been reported to be related to Xcc pathogenicity. We expressed the recombinant gene product and assessed Xcc trehalase structural and kinetics data. The recombinant protein presented 42.7% of secondary structures in α-helix and 13% in β-sheets, no quaternary structure in solution, and Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 0.077 mM and Vmax 55.308 μMol glucose.min-1.mg protein-1 for trehalose. A Xcc mutant strain (XccΔtreA) was produced by gene deletion from Xcc genome. Enzymatic activity of trehalase was determined in Xcc, XauC and XccΔtreA cellular lysates, showing the highest values for XauC in in vitro infective condition and no activity for XccΔtreA. Finally, leaves of Citrus aurantifolia infected with XccΔtreA showed much more drenching and necrosis than those infected by wild type Xcc. We concluded that trehalase contributes to alleviate bacterial virulence and that inability for trehalose hydrolysis may promote higher Xcc infectivity.
treA Codifies for a Trehalase with Involvement in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathogenicity
Andre Vessoni Alexandrino,* Leandro Seiji Goto, and Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur Zonghua Wang, Editor