455ºC at 760mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:95-32-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda’s capital city.
The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.
Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45), lower engine capacity (<100cc)(OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. Recommendations More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all who got licenses in last 3 years.
Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda
Nazarius M. Tumwesigye,1,* Lynn M. Atuyambe,2 and Olive K. Kobusingye3
Tuberculosis is a major public health problem with varying prevalence in different settings. National prevalence surveys provide evidence for planning and decision making. However, they lack the capacity to estimate subnational magnitude that affected the capacity to make selected intervention based on the prevalence. Ethiopia is among high TB burden countries with estimated prevalence of 108 per 100,000 population varying by regions. We aimed to study sub national prevalence of smear-positive TB in rural communities of southern Ethiopia.
This cross-sectional study, enrolled community members aged over 14 years who had cough of at least two weeks duration. Two sputum samples were collected and examined by using smear microscopy.
38,304 eligible people were enumerated (10,779 from Hadiya, 10,059 from Gurage and 17,466 from Sidama) and indentified 960 presumptive cases. 16, 14 and 14 smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were identified respectively. The point prevalence of smear-positive TB were 148 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 91-241) in Hadiya, 139 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 83-234) in Gurage and 80/100,000 population (95%CI: 48-135) in Sidama zone. Gurage zone had the highest prevalent to notified cases of seven to one.
The prevalence of smear positive TB varies by districts and is high in rural southern Ethiopia compared to the estimated national prevalence. More TB patients remain missed and unreached, impacting negatively on health outcomes. TB case finding approaches should be revisited and innovative approaches and tools to identify missing people with TB should be scaled up.
Smear positive pulmonary TB cases, Prevalence, Ethiopia
Sub-national prevalence survey of tuberculosis in rural communities of Ethiopia
Daniel G. Datiko,corresponding author1,3 Ermias Amsalu Guracha,2 Elias Michael,1 Girum Asnake,1 Meaza Demisse,2 Sally Theobald,3 Olivia Tulloch,4 Mohammed A. Yassin,5 and L. E. Cuevas3
The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100.
Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials
R Crebelli, A Paoletti, E Falcone, G Aquilina, G Fabri, and A Carere