White crystalline powder
Compound K/X1141/(3β,12β)-3,12-Dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranosid/N1890/β-D-Glucopyranoside, (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl/Ginsenoside K/Ginsenoside C-K
723.1±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:39262-14-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In 2004, Ghana implemented a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) as a step towards achieving universal health coverage. In this paper, we assessed the level of enrollment and factors associated with NHIS membership in two predominantly rural districts of northern Ghana after eight years of implementation, with focus on the poor and vulnerable populations.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 among 11,175 randomly sampled households with their heads as respondents. Information on NHIS status, category of membership and socio-demographic characteristics of household members was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to compute wealth index from household assets as estimates of socio-economic status (SES). The factors associated with NHIS enrollment were assessed using logistic regression models. The reasons behind enrollment decisions of each household member were further investigated against their SES.
Approximately half of the sampled population of 39,262 were registered with a valid NHIS card; 53.2% of these were through voluntary subscriptions by payment of premium whilst the remaining (46.8%) comprising of children below the ages of 18 years, elderly 70 years and above, pregnant women and formal sector workers were exempt from premium payment. Despite an exemption policy to ameliorate the poor and vulnerable households against catastrophic health care expenditures, only 0.5% of NHIS membership representing 1.2% of total exemptions granted on accounts of poverty and other social vulnerabilities was applied for the poor. Yet, cost of premium was the main barrier to NHIS registration (92.6%) and non-renewal (78.8%), with members of the lowest SES being worst affected. Children below the ages of 18 years, females, urban residents and those with higher education and SES were significantly more likely to be enrolled with the scheme.
Despite the introduction of policy exemptions as an equity measure, the poorest of the poor were rarely identified for exemption. The government must urgently resource the Department of Social Welfare to identify the poor for NHIS enrollment.
National health insurance scheme, Universal health coverage, Exemption policy, Wealth index, Poor, Equity, Ghana
The state of enrollment on the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana after eight years of implementation
Anthony Kwarteng,corresponding author1 James Akazili,2 Paul Welaga,2 Philip Ayizem Dalinjong,2 Kwaku Poku Asante,1 Doris Sarpong,3 Samuelina Arthur,4 Martin Bangha,4 Jane Goudge,5 and Osman Sankoh4
2019 Dec 31.
Transcriptome resources for social insects have the potential to provide new insight into polyphenism, i.e., how divergent phenotypes arise from the same genome. Here we present a transcriptome based on paired-end RNA sequencing data for the ant Formica exsecta (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). The RNA sequencing libraries were constructed from samples of several life stages of both sexes and female castes of queens and workers, in order to maximize representation of expressed genes. We first compare the performance of common assembly and scaffolding software (Trinity, Velvet-Oases, and SOAPdenovo-trans), in producing de novo assemblies. Second, we annotate the resulting expressed contigs to the currently published genomes of ants, and other insects, including the honeybee, to filter genes that have annotation evidence of being true genes. Our pipeline resulted in a final assembly of altogether 39,262 mRNA transcripts, with an average coverage of >300X, belonging to 17,496 unique genes with annotation in the related ant species. From these genes, 536 genes were unique to one caste or sex only, highlighting the importance of comprehensive sampling. Our final assembly also showed expression of several splice variants in 6,975 genes, and we show that accounting for splice variants affects the outcome of downstream analyses such as gene ontologies. Our transcriptome provides an outstanding resource for future genetic studies on F. exsecta and other ant species, and the presented transcriptome assembly can be adapted to any non-model species that has genomic resources available from a related taxon.
Pool-seq, RNA-sequencing, Ants, Transcriptome de novo assembly, Hymenoptera, Transcriptomics
Transcriptome sequencing reveals high isoform diversity in the ant Formica exsecta
Kishor Dhaygude,corresponding author#1 Kalevi Trontti,#2 Jenni Paviala,1 Claire Morandin,1 Christopher Wheat,3 Liselotte Sundstrom,1,4 and Heikki Helantera1,4
2017 Nov 21
We assessed mortality and losses to follow‐up (LTFU) during adolescence in routine care settings in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium.
Cohorts in the Asia‐Pacific, the Caribbean, Central, and South America, and sub‐Saharan Africa (Central, East, Southern, West) contributed data, and included adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) enrolled from January 2003 and aged 10 to 19 years (period of adolescence) while under care up to database closure (June 2016). Follow‐up started at age 10 years or the first clinic visit, whichever was later. Entering care at <15 years was a proxy for perinatal infection, while entering care ≥15 years represented infection acquired during adolescence. Competing risk regression was used to assess associations with death and LTFU among those ever receiving triple‐drug antiretroviral therapy (triple‐ART).
Of the 61,242 ALHIV from 270 clinics in 34 countries included in the analysis, 69% (n = 42,138) entered care <15 years of age (53% female), and 31% (n = 19,104) entered care ≥15 years (81% female). During adolescence, 3.9% died, 30% were LTFU and 8.1% were transferred. For those with infection acquired perinatally versus during adolescence, the four‐year cumulative incidences of mortality were 3.9% versus 5.4% and of LTFU were 26% versus 69% respectively (both p < 0.001). Overall, there were higher hazards of death for females (adjusted sub‐hazard ratio (asHR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.33), and those starting treatment at ≥5 years of age (highest asHR for age ≥15: 8.72, 95% CI 5.85 to 13.02), and in care in mostly urban (asHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.75) and mostly rural settings (asHR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.87) compared to urban settings. Overall, higher hazards of LTFU were observed among females (asHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), and those starting treatment at age ≥5 years (highest asHR for age ≥15: 11.11, 95% CI 9.86 to 12.53), in care at district hospitals (asHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.37) or in rural settings (asHR 1.21, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.29), and starting triple‐ART after 2006 (highest asHR for 2011 to 2016 1.84, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.99).
Both mortality and LTFU were worse among those entering care at ≥15 years. ALHIV should be evaluated apart from younger children and adults to identify population‐specific reasons for death and LTFU.
adolescents, mortality, lost to follow‐up, retention, global, HIV
Mortality and losses to follow‐up among adolescents living with HIV in the IeDEA global cohort collaboration
Azar Kariminia, 1 , † Matthew Law, 1 Mary‐Ann Davies, 2 Michael Vinikoor, 3 Kara Wools‐Kaloustian, 4 Valeriane Leroy, 5 Andrew Edmonds, 6 Catherine McGowan, 7 Rachel Vreeman, 4 Lee Fairlie, 8 Samuel Ayaya, 9 Marcel Yotebieng, 10 Elom Takassi, 11 Jorge Pinto, 12 Adebola Adedimeji, 13 Karen Malateste, 14 Daisy M Machado, 15 Martina Penazzato, 16 Rohan Hazra, 17 Annette H Sohn,corresponding author 18 , † and on behalf of IeDEA ‡
2018 Dec 13
Ginsenoside C-K, a bacterial metabolite of G-Rb1, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by reducing iNOS and COX-2. Ginsenoside C-K exhibits an inhibition against the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes with IC50s of 32.0±3.6 μM and 63.6±4.2 μM, respectively.