4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol bis(chloroformate)/2,2-bis-(4-chlorocarbonyloxy-phenyl)-propane/Propane-2,2-diyldi-4,1-phenylene dicarbonochloridate/2,2-Bis(4-chloroforMyloxyphenyl)propane/Propane-2,2-diyldi-4,1-phenylene dichlorocarbonate/4,4'-isopropylidenediphenyl bis(chloroformate)/4-(1-(4-[(Chlorocarbonyl)oxy]phenyl)-1-methylethyl)phenyl chloridocarbonate/Carbonochloridic acid, (1-methylethylidene)di-4,1-phenylene ester/2,2-Bis[p-(chloroformyloxy)phenyl]propane/2,2-Propanediyldi-4,1-phenylene dicarbonochloridate/Carbonochloridic acid,(1-methylethylidene)di-4,1-phenylene ester/Bisphenol A bis(chloroformate)/2,2-
415.2±38.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Winter air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is among the worst in the world. The health impacts of policy decisions affecting air pollution exposures in Ulaanbaatar were modeled and evaluated under business as usual and two more-strict alternative emissions pathways through 2024. Previous studies have relied on either outdoor or indoor concentrations to assesses the health risks of air pollution, but the burden is really a function of total exposure. This study combined projections of indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 with population time-activity estimates to develop trajectories of total age-specific PM2.5 exposure for the Ulaanbaatar population. Indoor PM2.5 contributions from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) were estimated in order to fill out total exposures, and changes in population and background disease were modeled. The health impacts were derived using integrated exposure-response curves from the Global Burden of Disease Study.
Annual average population-weighted PM2.5 exposures at baseline (2014) were estimated at 59 μg/m3. These were dominated by exposures occurring indoors, influenced considerably by infiltrated outdoor pollution. Under current control policies, exposures increased slightly to 60 μg/m3 by 2024; under moderate emissions reductions and under a switch to clean technologies, exposures were reduced from baseline levels by 45% and 80%, respectively. The moderate improvement pathway decreased per capita annual disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and death burdens by approximately 40%. A switch to clean fuels decreased per capita annual DALY and death burdens by about 85% by 2024 with the relative SHS contribution increasing substantially.
This study demonstrates a way to combine estimated changes in total exposure, background disease and population levels, and exposure-response functions to project the health impacts of alternative policy pathways. The resulting burden analysis highlights the need for aggressive action, including the elimination of residential coal burning and the reduction of current smoking rates.
Health assessment of future PM2.5 exposures from indoor, outdoor, and secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations under alternative policy pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
L. Drew Hill, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,* Rufus Edwards, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,2 Jay R. Turner, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,3 Yuma D. Argo, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,4,5 Purevdorj B. Olkhanud, Data curation, Investigation, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,4,6 Munkhtuul Odsuren, Investigation, Validation,4 Sarath Guttikunda, Methodology, Resources, Writing - review & editing,7 Chimedsuren Ochir, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,4 and Kirk R. Smith, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing1
Aims: There is mounting evidence that the transition metal copper may play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride (trientine), a CuII-selective chelator, is a commonly used treatment for Wilson’s disease to decrease accumulated copper, and thereby decreases oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a 3-month treatment course of trientine (Trien) on amyloidosis in 7-month-old β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic (Tg) AD model mice. Results: We observed that Trien reduced the level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and decreased Aβ deposition and synapse loss in brain of APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, we found that Trien blocked the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), downregulated β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), inhibited amyloidogenic APP cleavage, and subsequently reduced Aβ levels. In vitro, in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutant APP, Trien-mediated downregulation of BACE1 occurred via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Innovation: In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that Trien inhibited amyloidogenic pathway including targeting the downregulation of RAGE and NF-κB. Conclusion: Trien might mitigate amyloidosis in AD by inhibiting the RAGE/NF-κB/BACE1 pathway. Our study demonstrates that Trien may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the intervention and treatment of AD and other AD-like pathologies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 2024-2039.
Trientine Reduces BACE1 Activity and Mitigates Amyloidosis via the AGE/RAGE/NF-κB Pathway in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
Chun-Yan Wang, *,corresponding author1,,2, Jing-Wei Xie,1,* Ye Xu,2 Tao Wang,1 Jian-Hui Cai,3 Xu Wang,4 Bao-Lu Zhao,5 Li An,6 and Zhan-You Wangcorresponding author1
2013 Dec 10;
Objective: To explore the incidence rate and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among full-time teachers from 2005 to 2016 in southeast China and to provide a basis for TB prevention and control measures in schools. Methods: Information about full-time teachers with TB was obtained from the National Tuberculosis Information Management System (NTIMS). Population data were collected from the Zhejiang Statistical Yearbook and the Zhejiang Education Yearbook. The TB incidence rates and epidemiological characteristics of full-time teachers were analyzed and the Chi-square test was used to analyze influencing factors of epidemiological characteristics and clinical characteristics, case-finding delay, and treatment outcomes. Results: A total of 1795 teachers with TB were reported from 2005 to 2016, and the annual incidence rate was 28.87 per 100,000. The average annual PTB (pulmonary TB) incidence rate among full-time teachers was 25.43/100,000 from 2005 to 2016 and the average annual PTB incidence rate among students was 15.40/100,000 from 2005 to 2016. The highest average incidence rates were observed in the QZ (Quzhou) and HZ (Hangzhou) districts. The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 0.95:1. Approximately half of the patients were 15-40 years old. The mean case-finding interval was 45.3 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of TB case-finding delay among full-time teachers revealed that the older (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.18-1.76, p < 0.01), not local (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.20-2.73, p < 0.01), retreatment (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.39-3.08, p < 0.01) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.13-2.61, p = 0.01) cases were at high risk of case-finding delay. Compared to physical examination, patients detected by referrals and tracking (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.16-4.38, p = 0.02) and patients who directly visited the designated TB hospital (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.03-3.88, p = 0.04) were more prone to case-finding delay. The cure rate of full-time teachers with TB was 77.10%. The cure rates differed significantly between groups classified based on age, case-finding patterns, diagnostic results, treatment classifications, and strategies of patient management. Conclusion: The TB incidence rate among full-time teachers decreased from 2005 to 2016, but teachers suffered a higher risk of TB than students. Western Zhejiang was a hotspot for TB incidence among full-time teachers. Female teacher and young and middle-aged teacher cases account for the majority of the reported patients. There was a case-finding delay among full-time teachers with TB. We should conduct regular physical examinations and strengthen full-course supervision to reduce the risk of TB patients with case-finding delay and increase the TB cure rate.
full-time teachers, tuberculosis, China
Tuberculosis among Full-Time Teachers in Southeast China, 2005-2016
Hongdan Bao,1 Kui Liu,2 Zikang Wu,1 Chengliang Chai,2 Tieniu He,2 Wei Wang,2 Fei Wang,2 Ying Peng,2 Xiaomeng Wang,2 Bin Chen,2,* and Jianmin Jiang2,*