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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:74161-25-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Herpesvirus persistence requires a dynamic balance between latent and lytic cycle gene expression, but how this balance is maintained remains enigmatic. We have previously shown that the Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) major latency transcripts encoding LANA, vCyclin, vFLIP, v-miRNAs, and Kaposin are regulated, in part, by a chromatin organizing element that binds CTCF and cohesins. Using viral genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (3C) methods, we now show that KSHV latency control region is physically linked to the promoter regulatory region for ORF50, which encodes the KSHV immediate early protein RTA. Other linkages were also observed, including an interaction between the 5′ and 3′ end of the latency transcription cluster. Mutation of the CTCF-cohesin binding site reduced or eliminated the chromatin conformation linkages, and deregulated viral transcription and genome copy number control. siRNA depletion of CTCF or cohesin subunits also disrupted chromosomal linkages and deregulated viral latent and lytic gene transcription. Furthermore, the linkage between the latent and lytic control region was subject to cell cycle fluctuation and disrupted during lytic cycle reactivation, suggesting that these interactions are dynamic and regulatory. Our findings indicate that KSHV genomes are organized into chromatin loops mediated by CTCF and cohesin interactions, and that these inter-chromosomal linkages coordinate latent and lytic gene control.
Coordination of KSHV Latent and Lytic Gene Control by CTCF-Cohesin Mediated Chromosome Conformation
Hyojeung Kang, 1 , 2 Andreas Wiedmer, 1 Yan Yuan, 3 Erle Robertson, 4 and Paul M. Lieberman 1 , *
The present work is part of a process to create a Catalogue of the Freshwater Fishes of Colombia and consisted in the depuration and updating of the taxonomic and geographic components of the checklist of the freshwater fishes of Colombia. An exhaustive revision of the 1435 species recorded in 2008 was necessary to: 1. Add new species described since 2009 and species originally described from Colombia but inadvertently omitted in 2008; 2. Add new records of already described species; 3. Delete species whose presence in Colombia was not supported by voucher specimens in ichthyological collections; and 4. Revise the geographic distribution of the species listed in 2008. This process resulted in the following numbers: 1. Total number of freshwater fish species in Colombia: 1494; 2. Number of species recorded by hydrographic region – Amazon: 706, Orinoco: 663, Caribbean: 223, Magdalena-Cauca: 220, Pacific: 130; and 3. Number of endemic species: 374 (76% from the trans-Andean region). Updating the current checklist is a fundamental requirement to ensure its incorporation in the decision-making process with regard to the conservation of Colombian aquatic species and ecosystems, which are facing transformation processes as a result of activities such as mining, construction of hydroelectric plants, expansion of the agricultural frontier and subsequent deforestation, industrial and domestic pollution, development of waterways, introduction of exotic species, and climate change.
Aquatic ecosystems, conservation, endemic, richness, South America
Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Colombia: a Darwin Core alternative to the updating problem
Carlos DoNascimiento,1 Edgar Esteban Herrera-Collazos,2 Guido A. Herrera-R.,2 Armando Ortega-Lara,3 Francisco A. Villa-Navarro,4 Jose Saulo Usma Oviedo, and Javier A. Maldonado-Ocampo2
The stability of organic dyes against photobleaching is critical in single-molecule tracking and localization microscopy. Since oxygen accelerates photobleaching of most organic dyes, glucose oxidase is commonly used to slow dye photobleaching by depleting oxygen. As demonstrated here, pyranose-2-oxidase slows bleaching of Alexa647 dye by ∼20-fold. However, oxygen deprivation may pose severe problems for live cells by reducing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. We formulate a method to sustain intracellular ATP levels in the presence of oxygen scavengers. Supplementation with metabolic intermediates including glyceraldehyde, glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate maintained the intracellular ATP level for at least 10 min by balancing between FADH2 and NADH despite reduced oxygen levels. Furthermore, those metabolites supported ATP-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and internalization of PAR2 receptors. Our method is potentially relevant to other circumstances that involve acute drops of oxygen levels, such as ischemic damage in the brain or heart or tissues for transplantation.
Single-molecule live-cell imaging, metabolite, ATP, oxygen scavenger, fluorescence microscopy
Minimizing ATP depletion by oxygen scavengers for single-molecule fluorescence imaging in live cells
Seung-Ryoung Jung,a,b,1 Yi Deng,a Christopher Kushmerick,c Charles L. Asbury,a Bertil Hille,a,1 and Duk-Su Koha
2018 Jun 19;
Antioxidative and Antitumor Effects of Isoflavones Isolated from the Leaves of Maackia fauriei PUMID/DOI：无 Rec. Nat. Prod., 2016, 10(4):441-51. The flowers of Maackia fauriei have traditionally been used to treat hypertension, apoplexy, hemostasis, vaginal bleeding, and dystocia; moreover, the bark of this plant has been used as a natural dye. In the present study, activity-guided isolation of the leaves of M. fauriei yielded five isoflavones [genistein (1), pratensein (2), genistin (3), 2'-hydroxygenistein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and 2,3-Dehydrokievitone (5)]; three pterocarpans [medicarpin (6), maackiain (7), and 4-hydroxy maackiain (8)]; and one flavonol [isoquercitrin (9)]. To evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of these compounds, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT) superoxide scavenging assays were measured. And the anti-tumor activity against human cancer cell lines in genital system, LNCaP, PC-3,HeLa and OVCAR-3 cells were evaluated by MTT method. Furthermore, the apoptosis of the PC-3 and HeLa cells were determined by by annexin V-FITC and PI their fluorescence was analyzed by flow cytometry. The flavonol (9, isoquercitrin) and pterocarpan (8, 4-hydroxymaackiain) showed strong anti-oxidative activities. Besides, the isoflavones (1-5) did not showed anti-oxidative activity and the isoflavones (1-5) and pterocarpans (6-8) generally showed the potent cytotoxic activity against all of four human genital cancer cells. Especially, 2,3-Dehydrokievitone (5) which had a prenyl group at C-8 position of the A-ring exhibited strong cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis efficiently in cancer cells.