Xanthoceras sorbifolium,Pulsatilla chinensis,Rourea microphylla,Urtica fissa
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
585.8±25.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Polymeric nanoparticles were modified to exert antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. Nanoparticles were loaded with calcium, zinc and doxycycline. Ions and doxycycline release were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptoccocus mutans, gordonii and sobrinus were grown and the number of bacteria was determined by optical density. Nanoparticles were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/mL and incubated with 1.0 mL of each bacterial suspension for 3, 12, and 24 h. The bacterial viability was assessed by determining their ability to cleave the tetrazolium salt to a formazan dye. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe’s F (p < 0.05). Doxycycline doping efficacy was 70%. A burst liberation effect was produced during the first 7 days. After 21 days, a sustained release above 6 µg/mL, was observed. Calcium and zinc liberation were about 1 and 0.02 µg/mL respectively. The most effective antibacterial material was found to be the Dox-Nanoparticles (60% to 99% reduction) followed by Ca-Nanoparticles or Zn-Nanoparticles (30% to 70% reduction) and finally the non-doped nanoparticles (7% to 35% reduction). P. gingivalis, S. mutans and L. lactis were the most susceptible bacteria, being S. gordonii and S. sobrinus the most resistant to the tested nanoparticles.
antibacterial, calcium, doxycycline, nanoparticles, zinc
Modified Polymeric Nanoparticles Exert In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Oral Bacteria
Manuel Toledano-Osorio,1 Jegdish P. Babu,2 Raquel Osorio,1,* Antonio L. Medina-Castillo,3 Franklin Garcia-Godoy,2 and Manuel Toledano1
It is unknown to what extent use of palliative care and focus on proactive planning of end-of-life (EOL) care among cancer patients is also reflected by less use of intensive care. We aimed to examine the use of intensive care in the EOL in patients dying as a result of non-cancer diseases compared with patients dying due to cancer.
We conducted a nationwide follow-up study among 240,757 adults dying as a result of either non-cancer chronic disease or cancer in Denmark between 2005 and 2011. Using the Danish Intensive Care Database, we identified all admissions and treatments in intensive care units (ICU) during the patients’ last 6 months before death. We used prevalence ratios (aPRs) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, marital status and residential region to compare the 6-month prevalence of ICU admissions as well as treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and inotropes and/or vasopressors. In addition, length of ICU stay and death during ICU admission were compared among non-cancer and cancer patients dying between 2009 and 2011.
Overall 12.3 % of non-cancer patients were admitted to an ICU within their last 6 months of life, compared with 8.7 % of cancer patients. The overall aPR for ICU admission was 2.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.98-2.24] for non-cancer patients compared with cancer patients and varied widely within the non-cancer patients (patients with dementia, aPR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.17-0.21; patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, aPR 3.19, 95 % CI 2.97-3.41). The overall aPRs for treatment among non-cancer patients compared with cancer patients were 1.40 (95 % CI 1.35-1.46) for MV, 1.62 (95 % CI 1.50-1.76) for NIV, 1.19 (95 % CI 1.07-1.31) for RRT and 1.05 (95 % CI 0.87-1.28) for inotropes and/or vasopressors. No difference in admission length was observed. Non-cancer patients had an increased risk of dying in an ICU (aPR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.99-1.54) compared with cancer patients.
Overall, patients dying as a result of non-cancer diseases were twice as likely to be admitted to ICUs at the EOL as patients dying due to cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore whether this difference in use of intensive care reflects an unmet need of palliative care, poor communication about the EOL or lack of prognostic tools for terminally ill non-cancer patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1124-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Intensive care at the end of life in patients dying due to non-cancer chronic diseases versus cancer: a nationwide study in Denmark
Thomas Lyngaa,corresponding author Christian Fynbo Christiansen, Henrik Nielsen, Mette Asbjørn Neergaard, Anders Bonde Jensen, Kristina Grønborg Laut, and Søren Paaske Johnsen
The aim was to evaluate the effect of silver loaded nanoparticles (NPs) application on the triboscopic, crystallographic and viscoelastic properties of demineralized dentin. Polymethylmetacrylate-based NPs and Ag loaded NPs were applied on demineralized dentin.
Material and Methods
Treated and untreated surfaces were probed by a nanoindenter to test viscoelasticity, and by atomic force microscopy to test nanoroughness and collagen fibril diameter. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy through selected area diffraction and bright-field imaging were also used.
Dentin treated with Ag-NPs attained the lowest complex modulus, and the highest tan delta values after 7 days of storage. Dentin treated with undoped-NPs achieved the lowest nanoroughness and the greatest collagen bandwidths among groups. Crystals were identified as hydroxyapatite with the highest crystallographic maturity and crystallite size in dentin treated with undoped-NPs. Texture increased in all samples from 24 h to 7 d, except in dentin surfaces treated with Ag-NPs at 310 plane. Polyhedral, block-like, hexagonal or plate-like shaped apatite crystals constituted the bulk of minerals in dentin treated with Ag-NPs, after 7 d. Polyhedral or rounded/drop-like, and polymorphic in strata crystal apatite characterized the minerals when undoped-NPs were used, with more crystalline characteristics after 7 d than that found when Ag-NPs were applied. Ag-NPs application did not improve the mechanical performance of dentin and did not produce dentin remineralization. However, energy was dissipated through the dentin without showing stress concentration; contrary was occurring at dentin treated with undoped-NPs, that provoked bridge-like mineral deposits at the dentin surface.
Ag-NPs application did not enhance the mechanical properties of cervical dentin, though the energy dissipation did not damage the dentin structure. Remineralization at dentin was not produced after Ag-NPs application, though improved crystallinity may lead to increase stability of the apatite that was generated at the dentin surface.
Dentin, mechanical, mineralization, roughness, silver, viscoelastic.
Silver-loaded nanoparticles affect ex-vivo mechanical behavior and mineralization of dentin
Manuel Toledano,corresponding author1 Fatima S. Aguilera,1 Inmaculada Cabello,2 Manuel Toledano-Osorio,3 Estrella Osorio,1 Modesto T. Lopez-Lopez,4 Franklin Garcia-Godoy,5 Franklin Lynch,6 and Raquel Osorio1