2,4 DI-CUMYLPHENOL/Phenol, 2,4-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-/2,4-Di-α-cumylphenol/2,4-Bis(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)phenol/2,4-Bis(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)phenol/2,4-BIS(ALPHA,ALPHA-DIMETHYLBENZYL)PHENOL/2,4-Bis(2-phenyl-2-propanyl)phenol/2,4-Bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol
441.1±14.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:2772-45-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Plastic toys mouthed by children may be a source of exposure to endocrine active substances. The purpose of this study was to measure hormonal activity of substances leaching from toys and to identify potential endocrine disruptors causing that activity. For this purpose, migration experiments of toys were conducted in saliva simulants. The CALUX® assays were used to detect (anti-) estrogenic and (anti-) androgenic activity of 18 toys. Chemical trace analysis-namely, GC-MS and HPLC-MS- was used to identify which compounds may be responsible for endocrine activity in the sample migrates. Nine out of 18 tested toys showed significant estrogenic activity. For two samples, the detected estrogenic activity could be well explained by detecting the known endocrine active substance bisphenol A (BPA). For all identified substances, including BPA, a risk assessment for human health was performed by comparing the exposure dose, calculated based on the determined substance concentration, to toxicological reference values. Using worst-case scenarios, the exposure to BPA by mouthing of the two estrogen active, BPA-containing toys could be above the temporary TDI that EFSA has calculated. This demonstrates that some toys could significantly contribute to the total exposure to BPA of babies and infants. For seven out of nine estrogen active samples, the source of the estrogen activity could not be explained by analysis for 41 known or suspected endocrine active substances in plastic, indicating that the estrogen activities were caused by currently unknown endocrine active substances, or by endocrine active substances that would currently not be suspected in toys.
Potential endocrine disrupting properties of toys for babies and infants
Christian Kirchnawy, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing - original draft,#1 Fiona Hager, Investigation, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1 Veronica Osorio Piniella, Investigation,1 Mathias Jeschko, Investigation,1 Michael Washuttl, Methodology, Project administration, Resources,1 Johannes Mertl, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1 Aurelie Mathieu-Huart, Conceptualization, Writing - original draft,2 and Christophe Rousselle, Conceptualization, Writing - original draft2,*
Endocrine active substances (EAS) show structural similarities to natural hormones and are suspected to affect the human endocrine system by inducing hormone dependent effects. Recent studies with in vitro tests suggest that EAS can leach from packaging into food and may therefore pose a risk to human health. Sample migrates from food contact materials were tested for estrogen and androgen agonists and antagonists with different commonly used in vitro tests. Additionally, chemical trace analysis by GC-MS and HPLC-MS was used to identify potential hormone active substances in sample migrates. A GC-MS method to screen migrates for 29 known or potential endocrine active substances was established and validated. Samples were migrated according to EC 10/2011, concentrated by solid phase extraction and tested with estrogen and androgen responsive reporter gene assays based on yeast cells (YES and YAS) or human osteoblast cells (ERα and AR CALUX). A high level of agreement between the different bioassays could be observed by screening for estrogen agonists. Four out of 18 samples tested showed an estrogen activity in a similar range in both, YES and ERα CALUX. Two more samples tested positive in ERα CALUX due to the lower limits of detection in this assay. Androgen agonists could not be detected in any of the tested samples, neither with YAS nor with AR CALUX. When testing for antagonists, significant differences between yeast and human cell-based bioassays were noticed. Using YES and YAS many samples showed a strong antagonistic activity which was not observed using human cell-based CALUX assays. By GC-MS, some known or supposed EAS were identified in sample migrates that showed a biological activity in the in vitro tests. However, no firm conclusions about the sources of the observed hormone activity could be obtained from the chemical results.
Characterization of Estrogen and Androgen Activity of Food Contact Materials by Different In Vitro Bioassays (YES, YAS, ERα and AR CALUX) and Chromatographic Analysis (GC-MS, HPLC-MS)
Johannes Mertl,# * Christian Kirchnawy,# * Veronica Osorio, Angelika Grininger, Alexander Richter, Johannes Bergmair, Michael Pyerin, Michael Washuttl, and Manfred Tacker
A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1-75 μg/L) concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone). These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems.
Food science, Food safety, Materials chemistry
Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol
Luc Lagace,⁎ Carmen Charron, and Mustapha Sadiki