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2,4-Dihydroxy-3-nitropyridine

$64

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BN-O1013

  • Specification : 98%(HPLC)

  • CAS number : 89282-12-2

  • Formula : C5H4N2O4

  • Molecular Weight : 156.1

  • PUBCHEM ID : 54676840

  • Volume : 5mg

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Catalogue Number

BN-O1013

Analysis Method

Specification

98%(HPLC)

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

156.1

Appearance

Botanical Source

Structure Type

Category

SMILES

C1=CNC(=O)C(=C1O)[N+](=O)[O-]

Synonyms

2(1H)-Pyridinone, 4-hydroxy-3-nitro-/4-hydroxy-3-nitropyridin-2(1H)-one/4-Hydroxy-3-nitropyridin-2(1H)-on/3-Nitropyridine-2,4-diol/4-hydroxy-3-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one/4-Hydroxy-3-nitro-2(1H)-pyridinon/2,4-Dihydroxy-3-nitropyridine/4-Hydroxy-3-nitro-2(1H)-pyridinone

IUPAC Name

4-hydroxy-3-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one

Density

1.7±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Flash Point

265.0±28.7 °C

Boiling Point

514.6±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

265°C (dec.)

InChl

InChl Key

BKYGVGWYPFVKTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:89282-12-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

No Technical Documents Available For This Product.

PMID

28813490

Abstract

Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions (“the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation”, “suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior”). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.

Title

Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates

Author

Ulrich S. Tran, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1,2,* Rita Andel, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1,2 Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,2,3 Benedikt Till, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,2,3 Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Resources, Writing - review & editing,4 and Martin Voracek, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - review & editing1,2 Vincenzo DeLuca, Editor

Publish date

2017;

PMID

29487115

Abstract

Retinal neuronal abnormalities occur before vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that neurons control vascular pathology in diabetic and other neovascular retinal diseases. Therefore, normalizing neuronal activity in diabetes may prevent vascular pathology. We investigated whether fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented retinal neuronal dysfunction in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. We found that in diabetic neural retina, photoreceptor rather than inner retinal function was most affected and administration of the long-acting FGF21 analog PF-05231023 restored the retinal neuronal functional deficits detected by electroretinography. PF-05231023 administration protected against diabetes-induced disorganization of photoreceptor segments seen in retinal cross section with immunohistochemistry and attenuated the reduction in the thickness of photoreceptor segments measured by optical coherence tomography. PF-05231023, independent of its downstream metabolic modulator adiponectin, reduced inflammatory marker interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA levels. PF-05231023 activated the AKT-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and reduced IL-1β expression in stressed photoreceptors. PF-05231023 administration did not change retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of early diabetic retinopathy by protecting photoreceptor function in diabetes.

Title

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects Photoreceptor Function in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

Author

Zhongjie Fu,1 Zhongxiao Wang,1 Chi-Hsiu Liu,1 Yan Gong,1 Bertan Cakir,1 Raffael Liegl,1 Ye Sun,1 Steven S. Meng,1 Samuel B. Burnim,1 Ivana Arellano,1 Elizabeth Moran,1 Rubi Duran,1 Alexander Poblete,1 Steve S. Cho,1 Saswata Talukdar,2 James D. Akula,1 Ann Hellstrom,3 and Lois E.H. Smith1

Publish date

2018 May;

PMID

29152340

Abstract

The syntheses and crystal structures of (E)-N′-(3-cyano­benzyl­idene)-N-methyl-2-(thio­phen-2-yl)acetohydrazide, C15H13N3OS, (I), and (E)-N′-(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)-N-methyl-2-(thio­phen-2-yl)acetohydrazide, C15H16N2O2S, (II), with different substituents in the meta and para position of the benzene ring are described. Compounds (I) and (II) both crystallize with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, with generally similar conformations [r.m.s. overlay fits for (I) and (II) of 0.334 and 0.280 a, respectively] that approximate to L-shapes. The thio­phene rings in (I) are well ordered, whereas those in (II) exhibit ‘flip’ rotational disorder [occupancies 0.662 (2) and 0.338 (2) for mol­ecule 1, and 0.549 (3) and 0.451 (3) for mol­ecule 2]. The packing for (I) features short C—H⋯O inter­actions arising from the C—H grouping adjacent to the cyanide group and C—H⋯Nc (c = cyanide) links arising from the methine groups to generate [110] double chains. Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions inter­link the chains into a three-dimensional network. The packing for (II) features numerous C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions arising from different donor groups to generate a three-dimensional network. Hirshfeld fingerprint plots indicate significant differences in the percentage contact surfaces for (I) and (II).

KEYWORDS

crystal structure, carbohydrazide, methyl­ation, weak hydrogen bonds

Title

Crystal structures and Hirshfeld surfaces of differently substituted (E)-N′-benzyl­idene-N-methyl-2-(thio­phen-2-yl)acetohydrazides

Author

Laura N. F. Cardoso,a,b Thais C. M. Noguiera,a Carlos R. Kaiser,b James L. Wardell,a,c Marcus V. N. de Souza,a and William T. A. Harrisonc,*

Publish date

2017 Nov 1;


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