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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:89282-12-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions (“the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation”, “suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior”). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.
Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates
Ulrich S. Tran, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1,2,* Rita Andel, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,#1,2 Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing - review & editing,2,3 Benedikt Till, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,2,3 Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Resources, Writing - review & editing,4 and Martin Voracek, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing - review & editing1,2 Vincenzo DeLuca, Editor
Retinal neuronal abnormalities occur before vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that neurons control vascular pathology in diabetic and other neovascular retinal diseases. Therefore, normalizing neuronal activity in diabetes may prevent vascular pathology. We investigated whether fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented retinal neuronal dysfunction in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. We found that in diabetic neural retina, photoreceptor rather than inner retinal function was most affected and administration of the long-acting FGF21 analog PF-05231023 restored the retinal neuronal functional deficits detected by electroretinography. PF-05231023 administration protected against diabetes-induced disorganization of photoreceptor segments seen in retinal cross section with immunohistochemistry and attenuated the reduction in the thickness of photoreceptor segments measured by optical coherence tomography. PF-05231023, independent of its downstream metabolic modulator adiponectin, reduced inflammatory marker interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA levels. PF-05231023 activated the AKT-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and reduced IL-1β expression in stressed photoreceptors. PF-05231023 administration did not change retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of early diabetic retinopathy by protecting photoreceptor function in diabetes.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects Photoreceptor Function in Type 1 Diabetic Mice
Zhongjie Fu,1 Zhongxiao Wang,1 Chi-Hsiu Liu,1 Yan Gong,1 Bertan Cakir,1 Raffael Liegl,1 Ye Sun,1 Steven S. Meng,1 Samuel B. Burnim,1 Ivana Arellano,1 Elizabeth Moran,1 Rubi Duran,1 Alexander Poblete,1 Steve S. Cho,1 Saswata Talukdar,2 James D. Akula,1 Ann Hellstrom,3 and Lois E.H. Smith1
The syntheses and crystal structures of (E)-N′-(3-cyanobenzylidene)-N-methyl-2-(thiophen-2-yl)acetohydrazide, C15H13N3OS, (I), and (E)-N′-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-N-methyl-2-(thiophen-2-yl)acetohydrazide, C15H16N2O2S, (II), with different substituents in the meta and para position of the benzene ring are described. Compounds (I) and (II) both crystallize with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with generally similar conformations [r.m.s. overlay fits for (I) and (II) of 0.334 and 0.280 a, respectively] that approximate to L-shapes. The thiophene rings in (I) are well ordered, whereas those in (II) exhibit ‘flip’ rotational disorder [occupancies 0.662 (2) and 0.338 (2) for molecule 1, and 0.549 (3) and 0.451 (3) for molecule 2]. The packing for (I) features short C—H⋯O interactions arising from the C—H grouping adjacent to the cyanide group and C—H⋯Nc (c = cyanide) links arising from the methine groups to generate  double chains. Weak C—H⋯π interactions interlink the chains into a three-dimensional network. The packing for (II) features numerous C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π interactions arising from different donor groups to generate a three-dimensional network. Hirshfeld fingerprint plots indicate significant differences in the percentage contact surfaces for (I) and (II).
crystal structure, carbohydrazide, methylation, weak hydrogen bonds
Crystal structures and Hirshfeld surfaces of differently substituted (E)-N′-benzylidene-N-methyl-2-(thiophen-2-yl)acetohydrazides
Laura N. F. Cardoso,a,b Thais C. M. Noguiera,a Carlos R. Kaiser,b James L. Wardell,a,c Marcus V. N. de Souza,a and William T. A. Harrisonc,*
2017 Nov 1;