Propanedioic acid, mono[(3α)-26-hydroxy-24-methylene-23,26-dioxolanost-8-en-3-yl] ester/(3α)-3-(2-Carboxyacetoxy)-24-methylene-23-oxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
688.1±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:127970-62-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.
Analog Research, Floristics, Astrobiology
The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah
Paul C. Sokoloff,corresponding author‡ Colin E. Freebury,‡ Paul B. Hamilton,‡ and Jeffery M. Saarela‡
This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica’s population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible socioeconomic barriers.
Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico
Laurens M. Ni?ns, 1 , * Sten G. Zelle, 2 Cristina Gutierrez-Delgado, 3 Gustavo Rivera PeNa, 4 Blanca Rosa Hidalgo Balarezo, 5 Erick Rodriguez Steller, 6 and Frans F. H. Rutten 1 Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh, Editor
The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates many processes in bacteria, with a central role in controlling the switch between motile and nonmotile lifestyles. Recent work has shown that in Clostridium difficile (also called Clostridioides difficile), c-di-GMP regulates swimming and surface motility, biofilm formation, toxin production, and intestinal colonization. In this study, we determined the transcriptional regulon of c-di-GMP in C. difficile, employing overexpression of a diguanylate cyclase gene to artificially manipulate intracellular c-di-GMP. Consistent with prior work, c-di-GMP regulated the expression of genes involved in swimming and surface motility. c-di-GMP also affected the expression of multiple genes encoding cell envelope proteins, several of which affected biofilm formation in vitro. A substantial proportion of the c-di-GMP regulon appears to be controlled either directly or indirectly via riboswitches. We confirmed the functionality of 11 c-di-GMP riboswitches, demonstrating their effects on downstream gene expression independent of the upstream promoters. The class I riboswitches uniformly functioned as “off” switches in response to c-di-GMP, while class II riboswitches acted as “on” switches. Transcriptional analyses of genes 3′ of c-di-GMP riboswitches over a broad range of c-di-GMP levels showed that relatively modest changes in c-di-GMP levels are capable of altering gene transcription, with concomitant effects on microbial behavior. This work expands the known c-di-GMP signaling network in C. difficile and emphasizes the role of the riboswitches in controlling known and putative virulence factors in C. difficile.
IMPORTANCE In Clostridium difficile, the signaling molecule c-di-GMP regulates multiple processes affecting its ability to cause disease, including swimming and surface motility, biofilm formation, toxin production, and intestinal colonization. In this study, we used RNA-seq to define the transcriptional regulon of c-di-GMP in C. difficile. Many new targets of c-di-GMP regulation were identified, including multiple putative colonization factors. Transcriptional analyses revealed a prominent role for riboswitches in c-di-GMP signaling. Only a subset of the 16 previously predicted c-di-GMP riboswitches were functional in vivo and displayed potential variability in their response kinetics to c-di-GMP. This work underscores the importance of studying c-di-GMP riboswitches in a relevant biological context and highlights the role of the riboswitches in controlling gene expression in C. difficile.
Clostridium difficile, biofilms, c-di-GMP, cyclic diguanylate, flagellar motility, riboswitch
Cyclic Diguanylate Regulates Virulence Factor Genes via Multiple Riboswitches in Clostridium difficile
Robert W. McKee,a Carissa K. Harvest,a and Rita Tamayocorresponding authora