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The current study investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) on ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice.
Materials and Methods:
C57BL/6J mice were orally gavaged with 50% ethanol alone or co-administrated with EECP at the dose of 0.2 ml/kg bodyweight for eight weeks. The dose for ethanol was 6 ml/kg bodyweight for the first two experimental weeks, and then increased to 8, 10, and 12 ml/kg bodyweight every two experimental weeks. Alterations in the hepatic transcriptome due to concomitant administration of EECP were investigated using RNA-Seq technique.
Our results showed that the main EECP-responsive genes were involved in lipid syntheses, which were significantly down-regulated in both female and male mice co-administrated with EECP. In female mice, these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. While in male mice, these DEGs were mainly involved in the steroid metabolic process and cholesterol biosynthetic process. Despite the sex-associated responses in lipid metabolism, EECP also exerted other beneficial effects in female mice through modulation of the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway that helped explaining its hepato-protective effectiveness.
Our findings indicated that the mechanism regarding the hepato-protective effects of EECP was gender-dependent, which is worthy of further investigation during the development of therapeutic interventions using EECP to reduce the adverse influences of ethanol.
Alcoholic, Chinese propolis, Fatty liver, Inbred C57BL, Lipid metabolism, Mice
Gender associated effects of the ethanolic extracts of Chinese propolis on the hepatic transcriptome in ethanol-treated mice
Manhong Ye,1 Mengting Xu,1 Mengmeng Ding,1 Chao Ji,2 Jian Ji,2 Fubiao Ji,2 Wanhong Wei,3 Shengmei Yang,3 and Bin Zhou4,*
Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in gene expression and proteome diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (InDel) are abundant polymorphisms and co-dominant inheritance markers, which have been widely used in germplasm identification, genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in plants. So far, however, little information is available on utilization of AS events and development of SNP and InDel markers from transcriptome in radish.
In this study, three radish transcriptome datasets were collected and aligned to the reference radish genome. A total of 56,530 AS events were identified from three radish genotypes with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS type, which accounted for 59.4% of the total expressed genes in radish. In all, 22,412 SNPs and 9436 InDels were identified with an average frequency of 1 SNP/17.9 kb and 1 InDel/42.5 kb, respectively. A total of 43,680 potential SSRs were identified in 31,604 assembled unigenes with a density of 1 SSR/2.5 kb. The ratio of SNPs with nonsynonymous/synonymous mutations was 1.05:1. Moreover, 35 SNPs and 200 InDels were randomly selected and validated by Sanger sequencing, 83.9% of the SNPs and 70% of the InDels exhibited polymorphism among these three genotypes. In addition, the 15 SNPs and 125 InDels were found to be unevenly distributed on 9 linkage groups. Furthermore, 40 informative InDel markers were successfully used for the genetic diversity analysis on 32 radish accessions.
These results would not only provide new insights into transcriptome complexity and AS regulation, but also furnish large amount of molecular marker resources for germplasm identification, genetic mapping and further genetic improvement of radish in breeding programs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-017-3874-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Radish, Transcriptome, Alternative splicing (AS), Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Insertion/deletion (InDel), Genetic diversity
Comparative transcriptomics uncovers alternative splicing and molecular marker development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
Xiaobo Luo,1 Liang Xu,1 Dongyi Liang,1 Yan Wang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Xianwen Zhu,2 Yuelin Zhu,1 Haiyan Jiang,1 Mingjia Tang,1 and Liwang Liucorresponding author1
Cardiac allograft rejection remains a significant clinical problem in the early phase after heart transplantation and requires frequent surveillance with endomyocardial biopsy. However, this is an invasive procedure, which is unpleasant for the patient and carries a certain risk. Therefore, a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of acute rejection would be desirable.
Endomyocardial tissue samples and serum were obtained in connection with clinical biopsies from twenty consecutive heart transplant patients followed for six months. A rejection episode was observed in 14 patients (11 men and 3 women) and biopsies obtained before, during and after the episode were identified. Endomyocardial RNA, from three patients, matching these three points in time were analysed with DNA microarray. Genes showing up-regulation during rejection followed by normalization after the rejection episode were evaluated further with real-time RT-PCR. Finally, ELISA was performed to investigate whether change in gene-regulation during graft rejection was reflected in altered concentrations of the encoded protein in serum.
Three potential cardiac allograft rejection biomarker genes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA), from the DNA microarray analysis were selected for further evaluation. CXCL9 was significantly upregulated during rejection (p < 0.05) and CXCL10 displayed a similar pattern without reaching statistical significance. Serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA in samples from 10 patients before, during and after cardiac rejection. There were no changes in CXCL9 and CXCL10 serum concentrations during cardiac rejection. Both chemokines displayed large individual variations in the selected samples, but the serum levels between the two chemokines correlated (p < 0.001).
We conclude, that despite a distinct up-regulation of CXCL9 mRNA in human hearts during cardiac allograft rejection, this was not reflected in the serum levels of the encoded protein. Thus, in contrast to previous suggestions, serum CXCL9 does not appear to be a promising serum biomarker for cardiac allograft rejection.
Evaluation of CXCL9 and CXCL10 as circulating biomarkers of human cardiac allograft rejection
Kristjan Karason,1 Margareta Jernas,2 Daniel A Hagg,2 and Per-Arne Svenssoncorresponding author2,3