White needle crystal
Simple Phenolic Compounds
Benzoic acid,2,5-dihydroxy/Gentistic acid/Gensigon/2,5-dihydroxyphenylcarboxylic acid/2,5-DHBA,DHB,Gentisic acid/Gensigen/2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid/Gentisate/2,5-Dhba/Hydroquinonecarboxylic acid/Benzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxy-/2,5-dihydroxybenzoate/5-Hydroxysalicylic acid/2,5-Dioxybenzoic acid/5-hydroxy-Salicylic acid/2,5-Dihydroxy-benzoic acid/gentisic acid/3,6-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid/2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid/Carboxyhydroquinone/DHB/Mesalazine Impurity 7
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid is a derivative of benzoic and a powerful inhibitor of fibroblast growth factors.
406.9±35.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:490-79-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The pollution of aquatic environments by drugs is a problem for which scarce research has been conducted in regards of their removal. Amycolatopsis sp. Poz 14 presents the ability to biotransformation naphthalene at high efficiency, therefore, in this work this bacterium was proposed as an assimilator of naproxen and carbamazepine. Growth curves at different concentrations of naproxen and carbamazepine showed that Amycolatopsis sp. Poz 14 is able to utilize these drugs at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 as a source of carbon and energy. At higher concentrations, the bacterial growth was inhibited. The transformation kinetics of naproxen showed the total elimination of the compound in 18 days, but carbamazepine was only eliminated in 19.9%. The supplementation with cometabolites such as yeast extract and naphthalene (structure similar to naproxen) at 50 mg L-1, showed that the yeast extract shortened the naproxen elimination to 6 days and reached a higher global consumption rate compared to the naphthalene cometabolite. The biotransformation of carbamazepine was not improved by the addition of cometabolites. The partial sequencing of the genome of Amycolatopsis sp. Poz 14 detected genes encoding putative enzymes for the degradation of cyclic aromatic compounds and the activities of aromatic monooxygenase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase exhibited their involving in the naproxen biodegradation. The HPLC-MS analysis detected the 5-methoxysalicylic acid at the end of the biotransformation kinetics. This work demonstrates that Amycolatopsis sp. Poz 14 utilizes naproxen and transforms it to 5-methoxysalicylic acid which is the initial compound for the catechol and gentisic acid metabolic pathway.
5-Methoxysalicylic acid; Amycolatopsis; Carbamazepine; Catechol; Gentisic acid; Naproxen
Utilization of naproxen by Amycolatopsis sp. Poz 14 and detection of the enzymes involved in the degradation metabolic pathway
Alanis-Sanchez BM1, Perez-Tapia SM2,3,4, Vazquez-Leyva S2, Mejia-Calvo I2, Macias-Palacios Z2, Vallejo-Castillo L2, Flores-Ortiz CM5, Guerrero-Barajas C6, Cruz-Maya JA7, Jan-Roblero J8.
2019 Nov 14
Dietary phenolic compounds display strong antioxidant capabilities but face limited practical applications as a result of their poor biocompatibility (high immune resistance). Some food proteins possess mild antioxidant capabilities but are often not sufficient to maintain a reactive oxidative species balance. In this study, we overcome these barriers by covalently conjugating a natural phenolic antioxidant, gentisic acid (GA), onto an antioxidant protein, β-lactoglobulin (βLG). Upon optimization of conjugation conditions, we confirm the formation of βLG-GA conjugates with mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption. Surface charge analysis revealed a saturation molar ratio of 150:1 (GA/βLG), while far-ultraviolet circular dichroism revealed substantial changes in the protein secondary structure upon conjugation. The antioxidant capability of resultant conjugates was probed by monitoring the decay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical content via time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, which suggested two possible pathways to scavenge radicals, i.e., the antioxidant GA on the protein surface and the protein conformational change that exposes more antioxidant amino acids. To our best knowledge, this work is the first report on the fabrication of a dual-effect antioxidant biopolymer using a nature-inspired template via covalent linking with the antioxidant mechanism probed. Our findings are essential for opening a new route to design functional materials with enhanced antioxidant activity and biocompatibility.
antioxidant activity; electron paramagnetic resonance; gentisic acid; protein−polyphenolic conjugate; β-lactoglobulin
Improving Antioxidant Activity of β-Lactoglobulin by Nature-Inspired Conjugation with Gentisic Acid.
Li H, Pan Y, Yang Z, Rao J, Chen B.
2019 Oct 23
Cinnamic acid derivatives, particularly α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (E-α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or (E)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate; CHCA), have been extensively used especially for protein and peptide analysis. Together with the introduction of ionic liquid MALDI matrix (ILM) started the study of applications of IL prepared with CHCA and a counter organic base (ie, aliphatic amines) in which CHCA moiety is the chromophore responsible of UV-laser absorption. Despite the extensive studies of norharmane (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole; nHo) applications as matrix and its peculiar basic properties in the ground and electronic excited state, nHo containing ILM was never tested in MALDI-MS experiments. This pyrido-indole compound was introduced as MALDI matrix 22 years ago for different applications including low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrates (neutral, acidic, and basic carbohydrates). These facts encouraged us to use it as a base, for the first time, for ILM preparation. As a rational design of new IL MALDI matrices, E-α-cyanocinnamic acid.nHo and E-cinnamic acid.nHo were prepared and their properties as matrices studied. Their performance was compared with that of (a) the corresponding IL prepared with butylamine as basic component, (b) the corresponding crystalline E-α-cyanocinnamic and E-cinnamic acid, and (c) the classical crystalline matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, DHB; nHo) used in the analysis of neutral/sulfated carbohydrates. The IL DHB.nHo was tested, too. Herein, we demonstrate the outstanding performance for the IL CHCA.nHo for LMW carbohydrate in positive and negative ion mode (linear and reflectron modes). Sulfated oligosaccharides were detected in negative ion mode, and although the dissociation of sulfate groups was not completely suppressed the relative intensity (RI) of [M – Na]- peak was quite high. Additionally, to better understand the quite different performance of each IL tested as matrix, the physical and morphological properties in solid state were studied (optical image; MS image).
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CHCA.nHo; IL MALDI matrix; LMW carbohydrates; LMW neutral carbohydrates; LMW sulfated carbohydrates; MALDI-MS
norHarmane containing ionic liquid matrices for low molecular weight MALDI-MS carbohydrate analysis: The perfect couple with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.
Schmidt De Leon T1,2, Salum ML1,2, Erra-Balsells R1,2.