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Live birth has emerged as a reproductive strategy many times across vertebrate evolution; however, mammals account for the majority of viviparous vertebrates. Marsupials are a mammalian lineage that last shared a common ancestor with eutherians (placental mammals) over 148 million years ago. Marsupials are noted for giving birth to highly altricial young after a short gestation, and represent humans’ most distant viviparous mammalian relatives. Here we ask what insight can be gained into the evolution of viviparity in mammals specifically and vertebrates in general by analyzing the global uterine transcriptome in a marsupial. Transcriptome analyses were performed using NextGen sequencing of uterine RNA samples from the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Samples were collected from late stage pregnant, virgin, and non-pregnant experienced breeders. Three different algorithms were used to determine differential expression, and results were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Over 900 opossum gene transcripts were found to be significantly more abundant in the pregnant uterus than non-pregnant, and over 1400 less so. Most with increased abundance were genes related to metabolism, immune systems processes, and transport. This is the first study to characterize the transcriptomic differences between pregnant, non-pregnant breeders, and virgin marsupial uteruses and helps to establish a set of pregnancy-associated genes in the opossum. These observations allowed for comparative analyses of the differentially transcribed genes with other mammalian and non-mammalian viviparous species, revealing similarities in pregnancy related gene expression over 300 million years of amniote evolution.
Transcriptomic Changes Associated with Pregnancy in a Marsupial, the Gray Short-Tailed Opossum Monodelphis domestica
Victoria Leigh Hansen,1,* Faye Dorothy Schilkey,2 and Robert David Miller1,¤
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of the Newcastle disease, a severe disease in birds associated with substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Sweden is situated along the Western European waterfowl flyway and applies a non-vaccination policy combined with directives of immediate euthanisation of NDV infected flocks. During the last decades there have been several outbreaks with NDV in poultry in Sweden. However, less is known about the virus prevalence in the wild bird population including waterfowl, a well-established reservoir of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), the paramyxovirus serotype that include pathogenic NDV.
The survey constituted of 2332 samples from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), trapped in the southern part of Sweden during autumn migration in 2010. These samples were screened for APMV-1 by real-time reverse transcription PCR, and viral strains from positive samples were isolated and characterized by sequence analysis of the fusion gene and by phylogenetic analysis.
Twenty of these samples were positive for APMV-1, hence a virus prevalence of 0.9% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]=0.54%, 1.35%). The highest APMV-1 prevalence was detected in juvenile Mallards sampled in November (n=887, prevalence 1.24% ([95% CI])=0.67%, 2.24%). Sequence analysis and evaluation of phylogenetic relatedness indicated that isolated APMV-1 strains were lentogenic, and phylogenetically most closely related to genotype Ib strains within the clade of class II viruses. The sampling system employed enabled us to follow APMV-1 infections and the shedding of one particular viral strain in one individual bird over several days. Furthermore, combining previous screening results with the APMV-1 detections in this study showed that more than 50% of Mallards that tested positive for APMV-1 RNA were co-infected with influenza A virus.
Prevalence of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Mallards during autumn migration in the western Baltic Sea region
Conny Tolf,1 Michelle Wille,1 Ann-Katrin Haidar,1 Alexis Avril,1 Siamak Zohari,2 and Jonas Waldenstromcorresponding author1
The objective was to examine rates and disparities in preventive health topics covered during routine medical care for adolescents, using a California sample.
Utilizing 2003 California Health Interview Survey data, the sample included 2192 adolescents attending a physical exam within the past 6 months. Adolescents reported whether 9 health topics: tobacco; alcohol; drugs; seatbelts; helmets; violence; exercise, nutrition, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were discussed during their most recent physical exam. Outcomes were rates of health topics discussed and disparities in rates based on age, gender, race/ethnicity, income level, and insurance status.
Rates ranged from 15% (violence) to 76% (nutrition, exercise). Compared to older teens, younger teens reported discussing safety more, but substances, nutrition, and STDs less. Compared to males, females reported discussing tobacco and helmets less, but exercise and STDs more. Compared to white youths, Hispanic youths reported more discussion of most topics, black youths reported more discussion of nutrition and less of violence, and Asian youths reported more discussion of seatbelts and helmets. Lower-income and uninsured groups reported more discussion of health topics compared to higher-income and insured groups.
Rates of coverage of health topics are below recommended levels. Contrary to expectations, minority, uninsured, and lower income groups reported higher rates of discussing health topics. Strategies to increase the coverage of preventive health topics during routine medical care should address these findings.
Adolescent Preventive Services: Rates and Disparities in Preventive Health Topics Covered During Routine Medical Care in a California Sample
Sally H. Adams, Sheila Husting, Elaine Zahnd, Elizabeth M. Ozer
2010 Jun 1.