This product is isolated and purified from the leaves of Murraya exotica L.
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In 2015, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Chroscinski et al., 2014) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper “Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations” (Berger et al., 2012). Here we report the results of those experiments. We regenerated cells stably expressing ectopic wild-type and mutant phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2 (PREX2) using the same immortalized human NRASG12D melanocytes as the original study. Evaluation of PREX2 expression in these newly generated stable cells revealed varying levels of expression among the PREX2 isoforms, which was also observed in the stable cells made in the original study (Figure S6A; Berger et al., 2012). Additionally, ectopically expressed PREX2 was found to be at least 5 times above endogenous PREX2 expression. The monitoring of tumor formation of these stable cells in vivo resulted in no statistically significant difference in tumor-free survival driven by PREX2 variants, whereas the original study reported that these PREX2 mutations increased the rate of tumor incidence compared to controls (Figure 3B and S6B; Berger et al., 2012). Surprisingly, the median tumor-free survival was 1 week in this replication attempt, while 70% of the control mice were reported to be tumor-free after 9 weeks in the original study. The rapid tumor onset observed in this replication attempt, compared to the original study, makes the detection of accelerated tumor growth in PREX2 expressing NRASG12D melanocytes extremely difficult. Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.
Research Organism: Mouse
Replication Study: Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations
Stephen K Horrigan,1 Pascal Courville,2 Darryl Sampey,2 Faren Zhou,3 Steve Cai,3 and Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology*
Various layers of the retina are well known to alter the polarization state of light. Such changes in polarization may be a sensitive indicator of tissue structure and function, and as such have gained increased clinical attention. Here we demonstrate a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system that incorporates adaptive optics (AO) in the sample arm and a single line scan camera in the detection arm. We quantify the benefit of AO for PS-OCT in terms of signal-to-noise, lateral resolution, and speckle size. Double pass phase retardation per unit depth values ranging from 0.25°/µm to 0.65°/µm were found in the birefringent nerve fiber layer at 6° eccentricity, superior to the fovea, with the highest values being noticeably higher than previously reported with PS-OCT around the optic nerve head. Moreover, fast axis orientation and degree of polarization uniformity measurements made with AO-PS-OCT demonstrate polarization scrambling in the retinal pigment epithelium at the highest resolution reported to date.
Retinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics
Barry Cense,*,1 Weihua Gao,1 Jeffrey M. Brown,1 Steven M. Jones,2 Ravi S. Jonnal,1 Mircea Mujat,3 B. Hyle Park,4 Johannes F. de Boer,5 and Donald T. Miller1
2011 Jun 13.
Cattle are intermediate hosts for several Sarcocystis species with different definitive hosts. The present study, to our knowledge, is the first to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and morphologically and molecularly identify Sarcocystis species in cattle in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt. The samples were collected from the heart and oesophagus muscles of 84 slaughtered cattle (76 males and 8 females) aged between 11 months and 3 years from slaughterhouses in different localities in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt. The samples were macroscopically and histologically examined, and the molecular identification of the species was performed using 18S ribosomal subunit DNA through PCR and DNA sequencing. Infection was detected in 72 out of 84 animals (85.7%) and was more prevalent in males (76.2%) than in females (9.5). Using light microscopy, the microscopic sarcocysts were observed to be thin-walled. Sequencing and genotyping revealed one isolate that had 99 and 100% identity, respectively, to Sarcocystis cruzi, while another isolate had 95 and 99% identity to Sarcocystis hjorti. The present study is the first to identify Sarcocystis infection in cattle in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt both morphologically and molecularly. Sarcocystis cruzi and S. hjorti species were isolated from cattle, which is of veterinary importance and indicates that morphologically similar Sarcocystis species are genetically distinct. Additionally, the results show that Sarcocystis species are not host-specific.
Sarcocystis, Upper Egypt, Molecular, Hjorti
First molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt
Asmaa M. El-kady,corresponding author1 Nermean M. Hussein,2 and Amal A. Hassan3