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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:1457-47-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Virulence of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is crucially linked to formation of adherent biofilms on artificial surfaces. Biofilm assembly is significantly fostered by production of a bacteria derived extracellular matrix. However, the matrix composition, spatial organization, and relevance of specific molecular interactions for integration of bacterial cells into the multilayered biofilm community are not fully understood. Here we report on the function of novel 18 kDa Small basic protein (Sbp) that was isolated from S. epidermidis biofilm matrix preparations by an affinity chromatographic approach. Sbp accumulates within the biofilm matrix, being preferentially deposited at the biofilm-substratum interface. Analysis of Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants demonstrated the importance of Sbp for sustained colonization of abiotic surfaces, but also epithelial cells. In addition, Sbp promotes assembly of S. epidermidis cell aggregates and establishment of multilayered biofilms by influencing polysaccharide intercellular-adhesin (PIA) and accumulation associated protein (Aap) mediated intercellular aggregation. While inactivation of Sbp indirectly resulted in reduced PIA-synthesis and biofilm formation, Sbp serves as an essential ligand during Aap domain-B mediated biofilm accumulation. Our data support the conclusion that Sbp serves as an S. epidermidis biofilm scaffold protein that significantly contributes to key steps of surface colonization. Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants showed no attenuated virulence in a mouse catheter infection model. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of sbp in commensal and invasive S. epidermidis populations suggests that Sbp plays a significant role as a co-factor during both multi-factorial commensal colonization and infection of artificial surfaces.
An 18 kDa Scaffold Protein Is Critical for Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation
Rahel Decker,# 1 Christoph Burdelski,# 1 Melanie Zobiak, 1 Henning Buttner, 1 Gefion Franke, 1 Martin Christner, 1 Katharina Saß, 1 Bernd Zobiak, 2 Hanae A. Henke, 1 Alexander R. Horswill, 3 Markus Bischoff, 4 Stephanie Bur, 4 Torsten Hartmann, 4 Carolyn R. Schaeffer, 5 Paul D. Fey, 5 and Holger Rohde 1 ,*
johnson, E. M. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), barbara krauskopf, and l. s. baron. Genetic analysis of the ViA-his chromosomal region in Salmonella. J. Bacteriol. 92:1457-1463. 1966.—The relative chromosomal location of the ViA determinant, a gene required for Vi antigen expression in Salmonella typhosa (and present also in S. typhimurium), was examined in S. typhimurium × S. typhosa matings. The position of this gene was determined with respect to the histidine (his) and methionine (metG) biosynthesis markers, and to the genetic determinants of somatic antigens 5 (O-5) and 4 (O-4) of S. typhimurium. The gene order established by analyses of the hybrid classes resulting from the genetic crosses was ViA-O-5-metG-O-4 (his). This order suggests that neither ViA nor O-5 is a member of the complex of functionally related structural genes which constitute the O-4 locus. It allows for the possibility, however, of a functional relationship between the genes of the ViA and O-5 loci.
Genetic Analysis of the ViA-his Chromosomal Region in Salmonella
E. M. Johnson, Barbara Krauskopf, and L. S. Baron
Several studies have shown that significant genotypic heterogeneity exists among Campylobacter concisus strains. Recently, the genome of C. concisus UNSWCD, isolated from a patient with Crohn’s disease, was sequenced.
In this study, comparative analyses were performed between strain UNSWCD and BAA-1457, isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis. Searches between C. concisus UNSWCD and BAA-1457 showed that 76% of genes were homologues, whereas those between C. jejuni strains showed 90-91% to be homologues, indicating substantial variation exists within these two C. concisus genomes. More specific bidirectional homology searches identified 1593 genes that are shared between these strains, and 115 and 281 genes unique to UNSWCD and BAA-1457, respectively. Significantly, differences in the type of flagellin glycosylation pathways between the two strains were identified and confirmed by PCR. The protein profiles of UNSWCD, BAA-1457 and a further six strains of C. concisus were compared and analyzed bioinformatically, and this differentiated the strains into four clades. BAA-1457 was found to be highly divergent (average similarity: 56.8%) from the other seven strains (mean average similarity ± standard deviation: 64.7 ± 1.7%). Furthermore, searches for homologues of the 1593 proteins found to be common between UNSWCD and BAA-1457 were conducted against all available bacterial genomes, and 18 proteins were found to be unique to C. concisus, of which 6 were predicted to be secreted, and may represent good markers for detection of this species.
This study has elucidated several features that may be responsible for the heterogeneity that exists among C. concisus strains, and has determined that the strain BAA-1457 is genetically atypical to other C. concisus strains and is not a good candidate reference strain.
Campylobacter concisus, comparative, glycosylation, pseudoaminic acid, legionaminic acid
Comparative analyses of Campylobacter concisusstrains reveal the genome of the reference strain BAA-1457 is not representative of the species
Nadeem O Kaakoush,1 Nandan P Deshpande,2 Marc R Wilkins,1,2,3 Mark J Raftery,4 Karolina Janitz,3 and Hazel Mitchellcorresponding author1