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Since at least the middle-Miocene, the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) and the Subtropical Front (STF) appear to have been the main drivers of diversification of marine biota in the Southern Ocean. However, highly migratory marine birds and mammals challenge this paradigm and the importance of oceanographic barriers. Eudyptes penguins range from the Antarctic Peninsula to subantarctic islands and some of the southernmost subtropical islands. Because of recent diversification, the number of species remains uncertain. Here we analyze two mtDNA (HVRI, COI) and two nuclear (ODC, AK1) markers from 13 locations of five putative Eudyptes species: rockhopper (E. filholi, E. chrysocome, and E. moseleyi), macaroni (E. chrysolophus) and royal penguins (E. schlegeli). Our results show a strong phylogeographic structure among rockhopper penguins from South America, subantarctic and subtropical islands supporting the recognition of three separated species of rockhopper penguins. Although genetic divergence was neither observed among macaroni penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic islands nor between macaroni and royal penguins, population genetic analyses revealed population genetic structure in both cases. We suggest that the APF and STF can act as barriers for these species. While the geographic distance between colonies might play a role, their impact/incidence on gene flow may vary between species and colonies.
Contrasting phylogeographic pattern among Eudyptes penguins around the Southern Ocean
M. J. Frugone,1,2 A. Lowther,3 D. Noll,1,2 B. Ramos,1 P. Pistorius,4 G. P. M. Dantas,5 M. V. Petry,6 F. Bonadonna,7 A. Steinfurth,8,9 A. Polanowski,10 A. Raya Rey,11,12 N. A. Lois,11,13 K. Putz,14 P. Trathan,15 B. Wienecke,10 E. Poulin,2 and J. A. Viannacorresponding author1
Ivacaftor is a potentiator of the CFTR chloride channel and is in worldwide clinical use for the chronic treatment of cystic fibrosis in patients. There is evidence that the bioavailability of ivacaftor in the body may be influenced by the multi-drug exporter P-glycoprotein. Here we have employed purified and reconstituted P-glycoprotein to study its interaction with ivacaftor as well as the ability of the drug to compete with a known transported substrate of the protein. We find that ivacaftor stimulates the ATPase activity of the purified protein and can compete with the transport of the fluorescent substrate Hoechst 33342. These findings lead us to conclude that ivacaftor is very likely an efficiently transported substrate of P-glycoprotein. Evidence for state-dependent binding of ivacaftor was obtained using a fluorescent, cysteine-reactive reporter dye. The quiescent, nucleotide-free state in the P-glycoprotein transport cycle appears to bind ivacaftor strongly.
Investigation of the effects of the CFTR potentiator ivacaftor on human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)
Swathi Lingam, Nopnithi Thonghin, and Robert C. Fordcorresponding author
To compare dietary, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, genetic and prostatic features of Brazilian Indians and non-Indians (Amazon).
315 men, 228 Indians and 89 non-Indians, ≥40 years old were submitted to digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, TP53 and GSTP1 genotyping, anthropometric, lifestyle, dietary, personal and familial medical history. Prostatic symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).
Macuxis and Yanomamis represented 43.6% and 14.5% of Indians respectively who spontaneously referred no prostate symptoms. Mean IPSS was 7, range 3-19, with only 15% of moderate symptoms (score 8-19); Mean age was 54.7 years, waist circumference 86.6 cm, BMI 23.9 kg/m2. Yanomamis presented both lower BMI (21.4 versus 24.8 and 23.3, p=0,001) and prostate volume than Macuxis and “other ethnic groups” (15 versus 20, p=0.001). Testosterone (414 versus 502 and 512, p=0.207) and PSA (0.48 versus 0.6 and 0.41, p=0.349) were similar with progressive PSA increase with aging. Val/Val correlated with lower PSA (p=0.0361). Indians compared to control population presented: – TP53 super representation of Arg/Arg haplotype, 74.5% versus 42.5%, p<0.0001. -GSTP1 Ile/Ile 35.3% versus 60.9%; Ile/Val 45.9% versus 28.7%; Val/Val 18.8% versus 10.3%; p=0.0003. Conclusions Observed specific dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and genetic profile for TP53 and GSTP1 may contribute to Brazilian Indian population prostate good health.
Prostatic Diseases, Neoplasms, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, GSTP1 protein, human [Supplementary Concept], Testosterone, Genetic Therapy, Polymorphism, Genetic
Unraveling Brazilian Indian population prostate good health: clinical, anthropometric and genetic features
Mario M. de Lima, Junior, 1 Leonardo O. Reis, 1 Ubirajara Ferreira, 1 Ulieme Oliveira Cardoso, 1 Raquel Bueno Barbieri, 1 Gustavo B. de Mendonca, 1 and Laura S. Ward 1