5-amino-s-triazole-3-thio/3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol/5-AMINO-4H-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-THIOL/5-Amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol/3-Amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole/3-Amino-5-mercapto-1/3-amino-5-sulfanyl-1,2,4-triazole/2-amino-5-mercapto-1H-1,3,4-triazole/3-Imino-5-thiourazole/1H-1,2,4-Triazole-5-thiol, 3-amino-/4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol, 5-amino-/5-Amino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione/iminothiourazole/1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol, 5-amino-/3-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol/5-imino-2-triazolidine-3-thione/5-amino-3-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole
389.1±25.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:16691-43-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
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The substance 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMT, CAS No. 16691-43-3) was daily administered by gavage to Crl:CD (SD)IGS rats at doses of 0 (control), 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg bw/day. Males (12/group) were treated for a total of 42 days beginning 14 days before mating. Females (12/group) were treated beginning 14 days before mating to day 4 of lactation throughout the mating and gestation periods. No deaths occurred in males but three females died on day 23 of gestation at 250 mg/kg/day. Only temporary decreases in body weight and food intake were found in both sexes at 250 mg/kg/day. There were no considerable changes in general appearance, the functional battery tests, biochemical analysis or urinalysis. Anemia was observed in both sexes at 250 mg/kg/day. The relative weight of thyroid glands was significantly increased in both sexes at 250 mg/kg/day and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular cells was observed in 50 and 250 mg/kg/day males and 250 mg/kg/day females. As this effect on thyroid glands was considered to be the major toxicity, the possible mechanism was discussed comparing with the toxicity of structural similar analogs. Other histopathological changes in males were hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes at 250 mg/kg/day, and anterior pituitary glands at 50 mg/kg/day and more. Vacuolization in renal tubular epithelium of females was observed at 50 and 250 mg/kg/day. For reproduction, the gestation period was prolonged and the delivery index was decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. The number of pups born and the birth index were also reduced. It was thus concluded that the NOAEL for repeated-dose toxicity was 10 mg/kg/day based on the thyrotoxicity and renal toxicity, and that the NOAEL for reproductive/developmental toxicity was 50 mg/kg/day based on the reduced number of offspring, etc.
Combined Repeated-Dose and Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test of 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole in Rats
Junichi Kikuchi 1, Sunao Aso, Takayuki Koga, Katsumi Miyata, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yuji Kusune, Tomohiko Yoshida, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
Respiratory irritants represent a major cause of occupational obstructive airway diseases. We provide an overview of the evidence related to irritative agents causing occupational asthma or occupational COPD.
We searched MEDLINE via PubMed. Reference lists of relevant reviews were also screened. The SIGN grading system was used to rate the quality of each study. The modified RCGP three-star system was used to grade the body of evidence for each irritant agent regarding its causative role in either occupational asthma or occupational COPD.
A total of 474 relevant papers were identified, covering 188 individual agents, professions or work-sites. The focus of most of the studies and the predominant diagnosis was occupational asthma, whereas occupational COPD arose only incidentally.
The highest level assigned using the SIGN grading was 2+ (well-conducted systematic review, cohort or case-control study with a low risk of confounding or bias). According to the modified RCGP three-star grading, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent, profession or work-site (“**”) was found for 17 agents or work-sites, including benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylicacid-1,2-anhydride, chlorine, platinum salt, isocyanates, cement dust, grain dust, animal farming, environmental tobacco smoke, welding fumes or construction work. Phthalic anhydride, glutaraldehyde, sulphur dioxide, cotton dust, cleaning agents, potrooms, farming (various), foundries were found to be moderately associated with occupational asthma or occupational COPD (“*[+]”).
This study let us assume that irritant-induced occupational asthma and especially occupational COPD are considerably underreported. Defining the evidence of the many additional occupational irritants for causing airway disorders will be the subject of continued studies with implications for diagnostics and preventive measures.
Work-related asthma, Occupational asthma, Occupational COPD, RADS, Irritant-induced asthma
Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach
Xaver Baur,corresponding author1 Prudence Bakehe,1 and Henning Vellguth1