Panax notoginseng (Burk.)F.H.Chen
ODAP/(2S)-2-azaniumyl-3-(carboxylatoformamido)propanoate/(2S)-2-azaniumyl-3-[(carboxylatoformyl)amino]propanoate/Alanine, 3-[(carboxycarbonyl)amino]-/(2S)-2-azaniumyl-3-[(carboxylatocarbonyl)amino]propanoate/Dencichin/(2S)-2-ammonio-3-[(carboxylatocarbonyl)amino]propanoate/Dencichine/3-[(Carboxycarbonyl)amino]alanine/N(3)-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid/N-3-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoate/Oxalyldiaminopropionic acid
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:5302-45-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The wetting and hydration stage is the key step in manufacture process of several cereal?based products. Knowledge of hydration properties of gluten?free ingredients can contribute to improve the quality of gluten?free products. The objective of the present work was to investigate hydration properties for a large variety of gluten?free ingredients. Powders of tow gluten?free cereals (rice and maize) and powders of tow legumes (chickpea and faba bean) in comparison with durum wheat semolina. The hydration properties were evaluated at 25°C by vapor and liquid water addition.
Legume powders had the highest sorption capacity and stronger interaction with vapor water. Rice showed the highest vapor water diffusion at all RH intervals. Water holding capacity, swelling kinetics, and immersion enthalpy in liquid water were higher for legume and maize powders.
Gluten?free cereal powders show hydration properties different from those of legumes. Different combinations of these gluten?free materials can be made to approach the properties of wheat powders.
gluten?free powders, physicochemical properties, sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties, water diffusion, water holding
Physicochemical and hydration properties of different cereal and legume gluten?free powders
Nohed Boucheham,corresponding author 1 Laurence Galet, 2 Severine Patry, 2 and Mohammed Nasreddin Zidoune 1
2019 Aug 20.
Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions.
High crop yield under optimal as well as environmental stress conditions is a valuable crop-stability trait that is targeted for improvement using classical breeding as well as genetic engineering1. Many approaches have been proposed to boost intrinsic yield, such as enhancement of growth or increase in photosynthetic rate and capacity2. Photosynthesis, the basis of life on earth that converts light energy to chemical energy in integrated photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) processes, is complex and requires a systems-wide approach to coordinately improve plant productivity and yield3 that is stable under environmental stresses. Transcription factors (TFs) have shown promise in coordinately improving specific traits in rice, such as photosynthetic assimilation and plant biomass4 or grain yield (GY) components under drought5, and have the potential to coordinately regulate photosynthesis and PCM for crop yield.
Although photosynthesis is accepted as the basis of absolute yield, yield improvement via direct improvement of photosynthetic efficiency has not yet been successful6. Nonetheless, evidence that elevated CO2 can increase leaf photosynthesis in crops by as much as 22.6% over the growing season suggests that increasing photosynthesis can increase productivity and yield7. One of the primary strategies has been on engineering RuBisCO to improve photosynthetic efficiency8, although many more metabolic reactions in PCM and associated processes in sucrose synthesis and photorespiration have been shown to play an equivalent role. Metabolic analysis using a dynamic model of PCM9 suggests that the partitioning of resources among enzymes of PCM in C3 crop leaves is not optimal for maximizing the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, and under elevated CO2 predicted for the future, this problem is amplified. The selection of changes to the photosynthetic process intended to improve biomass production and crop yield must take into account a complex matrix of interacting genes and mechanisms. It is recognized that combining systems modelling with modern breeding and transgenic technologies holds promise to design new pathways, such as improved CO2 fixation and photorespiratory pathways10, or new genetic-regulatory networks11 to improve photosynthetic efficiency.
GY in cereals such as rice is limited by environmental stresses such as drought and high temperature, which are also increasing due to climate-change effects. Photosynthesis and related carbon metabolism is primarily affected by stress, thereby reducing GY12. Understanding of this complex interaction in a systems biology approach will provide the genetic tools to maintain yield under stress. Amongst cereals, rice as a paddy field crop is particularly susceptible to water stress and it is estimated that 50% of the world rice production is affected by drought. Major research efforts are directed at understanding the mechanism of plant responses to drought stress to identify gene products that confer adaptation to water deficit. Molecular mechanisms of water stress response have been investigated primarily in the model plant species Arabidopsis. Upon exposure to drought-stress conditions, many stress-related genes are induced, and their products are thought to function as cellular protectors from stress-induced damage13.
The expression of stress-related genes is largely regulated by TFs. The rice and Arabidopsis genomes code for >1,500 TFs, and about 45% of them are reported from plant-specific families. Various drought-stress studies have identified TF families with putative functions in drought including MYB, bZIP, Zinc finger, NAM and APETALA2 (AP2)13. The AP2 family is one of the plant-specific TFs whose members share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as AP2, and members of this family have been associated with various developmental processes and stress tolerance14. The AP2 TF CBF4, also known as DREB1, was shown by overexpression analysis to lead to drought adaptation in Arabidopsis14; the Arabidopsis AP2 TF called HARDY was reported to provide enhanced drought tolerance and water-use efficiency (WUE) in Arabidopsis and rice4. Ectopic expression of these genes confer drought tolerance and/or adaptation by modifying cellular structures of leaves and roots, CO2 exchange and parameters such as WUE, which correlate with the transformed plants’ ability to withstand drought. Taken together, these and other findings indicate that AP2 TFs offer the potential to engineer plants in a way that makes them more productive under stress conditions.
Although drought stress can alter the growth and development of a plant at any time during its life cycle, water limitations during reproductive growth stages can be especially conducive to yield losses in crops such as rice and maize (Zea mays)15. Accordingly, the reproductive phases in these plants should be an important stage to study for identifying stress-responsive genes that might have a protective, or yield-altering, function in drought. Advances in plant genomics, including the availability of the complete genome sequence of rice, have provided an opportunity to identify stress-related TFs that control yield under drought. To this end, a genome-wide analysis of drought-stress responses was conducted and led to the identification of a candidate drought-induced AP2/ERF TF in reproductive tissues.
To determine whether the TF could play a role in enhancing the tolerance of rice and possibly other crops to drought stress, transgenic plants were generated that contain the candidate gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. The HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) gene-expressing transgenic plants here are referred to as HYR lines, as they showed higher GY under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. In addition the HYR lines expressed multiple component traits involved in photosynthesis, sugar levels, root and shoot biomass and WUE under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The enhanced productivity and the drought-resistant phenotype of the transgenic plants compared with the wild type (WT) are discussed. These studies provide an insight into improvement of plant productivity through enhancement of photosynthesis and multiple downstream biological processes (BPs) in combination with stress tolerance in plants.
Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress
Madana M. R. Ambavaram,1,* Supratim Basu,2 Arjun Krishnan,1,† Venkategowda Ramegowda,2 Utlwang Batlang,1,‡ Lutfor Rahman,2 Niranjan Baisakh,3 and Andy Pereiraa,1,2
2014 Oct 31
T cell-independent host resistance expressed against a primary lung infection with Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated. Following intratracheal inoculation of the yeast, BALB/cBy scid/scid mice or CD4+ plus CD8+ T cell-depleted BALB/cBy mice developed a primary lung infection that remained stable for several weeks before progressing and disseminating to kill the host. By contrast, normal BALB/cBy hosts resolved the infection after 4 to 8 weeks. Thy+ CD4- CD8- cells were found to accumulate in the pulmonary alveoli of infected scid/scid or normal mice. Depletion of these cells caused the infection to progress more rapidly and resulted 4 weeks later in a 30- to 70-fold increase in yeast numbers in the lungs and dissemination to extrapulmonary sites. Cytofluorometric studies revealed that the Thy+ CD4- CD8- cells responsible were negative for the CD3 T cell marker. A small percentage of these Thy+ CD3- cells expressed asialo-Gm1, but treatment with asialo-Gm1 antibody did not have the same infection-enhancing effect as Thy-1 monoclonal antibody treatment. Further experiments revealed that Thy-1 monoclonal antibody treatment had no effect on the establishment of infectious foci in the brain or liver following intravenous inoculation of the yeast. The data point to the existence of an early resistance mechanism for which Thy+ CD3- CD4- CD8- cells are essential. This mechanism of host defense, while insufficient for complete protection, may be capable of delaying the development of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis by restricting the growth of the yeast at primary sites of infection in the lungs, even in immunodeficient mice.
A T cell-independent protective host response against Cryptococcus neoformans expressed at the primary site of infection in the lung.
J O Hill and P L Dunn