Apium graveolens L.
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Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri)1. These species are prevalent across most regions in which malaria is endemic2,3 and are often undetectable by light microscopy4, rendering their study in human populations difficult5. The exact evolutionary relationship of these species to the other human-infective species has been contested6,7. Using a new reference genome for P. malariae and a manually curated draft P. o. curtisi genome, we are now able to accurately place these species within the Plasmodium phylogeny. Sequencing of a P. malariae relative that infects chimpanzees reveals similar signatures of selection in the P. malariae lineage to another Plasmodium lineage shown to be capable of colonization of both human and chimpanzee hosts. Molecular dating suggests that these host adaptations occurred over similar evolutionary timescales. In addition to the core genome that is conserved between species, differences in gene content can be linked to their specific biology. The genome suggests that P. malariae expresses a family of heterodimeric proteins on its surface that have structural similarities to a protein crucial for invasion of red blood cells. The data presented here provide insight into the evolution of the Plasmodium genus as a whole.
Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution
Gavin G. Rutledge,1 Ulrike Bohme,1 Mandy Sanders,1 Adam J. Reid,1 James A. Cotton,1 Oumou Maiga-Ascofare,2,3 Abdoulaye A. Djimde,1,2 Tobias O. Apinjoh,4 Lucas Amenga-Etego,5 Magnus Manske,1 John W. Barnwell,6 Francois Renaud,7 Benjamin Ollomo,8 Franck Prugnolle,7,8 Nicholas M. Anstey,9 Sarah Auburn,9 Ric N. Price,9,10 James S. McCarthy,11 Dominic P. Kwiatkowski,1,12 Chris I. Newbold,1,13 Matthew Berriman,1 and Thomas D. Otto1
2017 Feb 25
Work‐related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. The direct and indirect costs of work‐related upper limb MSDs have been reported to be high in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Although ergonomic interventions are likely to reduce the risk of office workers developing work‐related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was last published in 2012.
To assess the effects of physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomic interventions, or combinations of those interventions for the prevention of work‐related upper limb and neck MSDs among office workers.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science (Science Citation Index), SPORTDiscus, Embase, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database, and the World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to 10 October 2018.
We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ergonomic interventions for preventing work‐related upper limb or neck MSDs (or both) among office workers. We only included studies where the baseline prevalence of MSDs of the upper limb or neck, or both, was less than 25%.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included studies with relevant data that we judged to be sufficiently homogeneous regarding the interventions and outcomes in the meta‐analysis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for each comparison using the GRADE approach.
We included 15 RCTs (2165 workers). We judged one study to have a low risk of bias and the remaining 14 studies to have a high risk of bias due to small numbers of participants and the potential for selection bias.
Ergonomic interventions for preventing work‐related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck among office workers
Monitoring Editor: Victor CW Hoe,corresponding author Donna M Urquhart, Helen L Kelsall, Eva N Zamri, Malcolm R Sim, and Cochrane Work Group
Numerous observations suggest diverse and modulatory roles for serotonin (5-HT) in cortex. Because of the diversity of cell types and multiple receptor subtypes and actions of 5-HT, it has proven difficult to determine the overall role of 5-HT in cortical function. To provide a broader perspective of cellular actions, we studied the effects of 5-HT on morphologically and physiologically identified pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons from layers I-III of primary somatosensory and motor cortex. We found cell type-specific differences in response to 5-HT. Four cell types were observed in layer I: Cajal Retzius, pia surface, vertical axon, and horizontal axon cells. The physiology of these cells ranged from fast spiking (FS) to regular spiking (RS). In layers II-III, we observed interneurons with FS, RS, and late spiking physiology. Morphologically, these cells varied from bipolar to multipolar and included basket-like and chandelier cells. 5-HT depolarized or hyperpolarized pyramidal neurons and reduced the slow afterhyperpolarization and spike frequency. Consistent with a role in facilitating tonic inhibition, 5-HT2 receptor activation increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in pyramidal neurons. In layers II-III, 70% of interneurons were depolarized by 5-HT. In layer I, 57% of cells with axonal projections to layers II-III (vertical axon) were depolarized by 5-HT, whereas 63% of cells whose axons remain in layer I (horizontal axon) were hyperpolarized by 5-HT. We propose a functional segregation of 5-HT effects on cortical information processing, based on the pattern of axonal arborization.
:5-HT, interneuron, potassium, cortex, pyramidal cell, biocytin
Serotonergic Modulation of Supragranular Neurons in Rat Sensorimotor Cortex
R. C. Foehring,3 J. F. M. van Brederode,1,2 G. A. Kinney,1,2 and W. J. Spain1,2
2002 Sep 15;