This product is isolated and purified from the woods of Pseudolarix kaempferi.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
102.3±13.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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A plasmid library of Salmonella typhimurium was used to complement a temperature-sensitive nrdA mutant of Escherichia coli. Complementation was obtained with two different classes of plasmids, one carrying the E. coli nrdAB-like genes and the second containing an operon encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase. Plasmids harboring these new reductase genes also enable obligately anaerobic nrdB::Mud1 E. coli mutants to grow in the presence of oxygen. This operon consists of two open reading frames, which have been designated nrdE (2,145 bp) and nrdF (969 bp). The deduced amino acid sequences of the nrdE and nrdF products include the catalytically important residues conserved in ribonucleotide reductase enzymes of class I and show 25 and 28% overall identity with the R1 and R2 protein, respectively, of the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase of E. coli. The 3′ end of the sequenced 4.9-kb fragment corresponds to the upstream region of the previously published proU operon of both S. typhimurium and E. coli, indicating that the nrdEF genes are at 57 min on the chromosomal maps of these two bacterial species. Analysis of the nrdEF and proU sequences demonstrates that transcription of the nrdEF genes is in the clockwise direction on the S. typhimurium and E. coli maps.
Cloning and sequencing of the genes from Salmonella typhimurium encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase.
A Jordan, I Gibert, and J Barbe
Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified “Abx-free/Abx <10 days” as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.
Keywords: Immunology, Transplantation Keywords: Innate immunity, Organ transplantation
Antibiotic pretreatment alleviates liver transplant damage in mice and humans
Kojiro Nakamura,1 Shoichi Kageyama,1 Takahiro Ito,1 Hirofumi Hirao,1 Kentaro Kadono,1 Antony Aziz,1 Kenneth J. Dery,1 Matthew J. Everly,2 Kojiro Taura,3 Shinji Uemoto,3 Douglas G. Farmer,1 Fady M. Kaldas,1 Ronald W. Busuttil,1 and Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinskicorresponding author1
2019 Aug 1;
Isoelectric focusing, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and carboxymethylcellulose chromatography in the presence of Nonidet P-40 allow the separation of pure gamma chains into two fractions. Amino acid analysis of their cyanogen bromide fragment 3 (gamma CB3) identifies these fractions as the separated G gamma (Gly-136) and A gamma (Ala-136) globin chains. Fingerprint and amino acid analyses of the gamma Tp9 tryptic peptide from the purified A gamma and G gamma fractions from two different patients demonstrate that the commonly occurring gamma Sardinia variant (gamma 75 isoleucine leads to threonine), also known as T gamma chain, has alanine in position 136. From this analysis we suggest that the T gamma gene is an allele of the A gamma locus (A gamma Sardinia) rather than a third gamma locus.
Human T gamma globin chain is a variant of A gamma chain (A gamma Sardinia).
G Saglio, G Ricco, U Mazza, C Camaschella, P G Pich, A M Gianni, E Gianazza, P G Righetti, B Giglioni, P Comi, M Gusmeroli, and S Ottolenghi