2-Propen-1-one, 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, (2E)-/(2E)-1-(2,4-Dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
544.2±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:109471-13-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Bile acid-independent secretion and the choleretic response to taurocholate were determined in rhesus monkeys fitted with indwelling silastic cannulas in the common bile ducts. Bile acids were infused intravenously in random order at 3.5, 7.0, or 10.5 μmol/min for 1.5 h each. When data were analyzed with a single regression line, bile flow increased in proportion to the level of bile acid secretion, although the y-intercepts (the conventional measurement of bile acid-independent secretion) varied widely (77.9±40.9 ml/24 h). The variation in y-intercepts was observed between animals and with repeated studies in the same animal and could not be explained by sex differences or the effects of the indwelling silastic cannulas, but seemed to be related to the order of bile acid infusion. With only two taurocholic acid infusion rates (7.0 and 3.5 μmol/min), [14C]erythritol clearance was greater per mole of secreted bile acid when the initial bile acid infusion was at the high level, but approached zero at low bile acid secretion rates, which suggests that so-called bile acid-independent canalicular flow is closely related to bile acid secretion or is small in size. The augmentation in [14C]erythritol clearance when the high infusion rate was given first was also associated with an increase in biliary clearance of [3H]inulin, which indicates that the premeability to inulin was also enhanced. Identical experiments which substituted equimolar infusions of a nonmicelle-forming bile acid (taurodehydrocholate) for taurocholate failed to demonstrate any difference in choleretic response or biliary clearance of [3H]inulin with the order of bile acid infusion. These experiments demonstrate that a micelleforming bile acid, taurocholate, can increase the permeability of the biliary system to large molecular weight solutes and simultaneously modify the y-intercept and the volume of bile secreted in response to the transported bile acid. Taurocholate may, therefore, modify its own choleretic response, perhaps by altering the structure or function of bile secretory membranes, and appears to be a major determinant of so-called bile acid-independent flow in rhesus monkeys.
Sodium Taurocholate Modifies the Bile Acid-Independent Fraction of Canalicular Bile Flow in the Rhesus Monkey
Alfred L. Baker, R. A. B. Wood, A. R. Moossa, and James L. Boyer
Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy.
Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer
Sonia A. Melo,1,#* Linda B. Luecke,1,* Christoph Kahlert,1,* Agustin F. Fernandez,2 Seth T. Gammon,3 Judith Kaye,1 Valerie S. LeBleu,1 Elizabeth A. Mittendorf,4 Juergen Weitz,5 Nuh Rahbari,5 Christoph Reissfelder,5 Christian Pilarsky,5 Mario F. Fraga,2,6 David Piwnica-Worms,3 and Raghu Kalluri1,§
2016 Jul 9.
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic-resistant strains throughout the 2000s. However, diseases caused by resistant nonvaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of a vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high-quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with the genomes of 581 isolates from 2012 to 2013 collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Of the seven sequence clusters (SCs) identified, three SCs fell into a single lineage associated with serogroup 23, which had an origin in 1908 as dated by coalescent analysis and included isolates with a divergent 23B capsule locus. Three other SCs represented relatively deep-branching lineages associated with serotypes 35B, 15A, and 15BC. In all cases, the resistant clones originated prior to 2010, indicating that PNSP are at present dominated by descendants of NVT clones present before vaccination. With one exception (15BC/ST3280), these SCs were related to clones identified by the Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN). We conclude that postvaccine diversity in NVT PNSP between 2009 and 2013 was driven mainly by the persistence of preexisting strains rather than through de novo adaptation, with few cases of serotype switching. Future surveillance is essential for documenting the long-term dynamics and resistance of NVT PNSP.
genomic epidemiology, nonvaccine serotype, penicillin, vaccine
Genomic Epidemiology of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Pneumococci with Nonvaccine Serotypes Causing Invasive Disease in the United States
Cheryl P. Andam,a Patrick K. Mitchell,a Alanna Callendrello,a Qiuzhi Chang,a Jukka Corander,b Chrispin Chaguza,c,d Lesley McGee,e Bernard W. Beall,e and William P. Hanagea