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Over the years, there has been increasing interest in the integration of metal hole array (MHA) with optoelectronic devices, as a result of enhanced coupling of incident light into the active layer of devices via surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonances. However, not all incident light contributes to the SPP resonances due to significant reflection loss at the interface between incident medium and MHA. Conventional thin-film antireflection (AR) coating typically does not work well due to non-existing material satisfying the AR condition with strong dispersion of MHA’s effective impedances. We demonstrate a single-layer metasurface AR coating that completely eliminates the refection and significantly increases the transmission at the SPP resonances. Operating at off-resonance wavelengths, the metasurface exhibits extremely low loss and does not show resonant coupling with the MHA layer. The SPP resonance wavelengths of MHA layer are unaffected whereas the surface wave is significantly increased, thereby paving the way for improved performance of optoelectronic devices. With an improved retrieval method, the metasurface is proved to exhibit a high effective permittivity (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep36190-m1.jpg) and extremely low loss (tan δ ~ 0.005). A classical thin-film AR coating mechanism is identified through analytical derivations and numerical simulations.
A Low-loss Metasurface Antireflection Coating on Dispersive Surface Plasmon Structure
Jiyeon Jeon,1,2,* Khagendra Bhattarai,3,* Deok-Kee Kim,2 Jun Oh Kim,1 Augustine Urbas,4 Sang Jun Lee,a,1 Zahyun Ku,b,4 and Jiangfeng Zhouc,3
Chinese populations have a higher proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in total strokes. However, the reasons are not fully understood.
To assess the differences in frequency of major risk factors between ICH and ischemic stroke (IS) in Chinese versus white populations of European descent, we systematically sought studies conducted since 1990 that compared frequency of risk factors between ICH and IS in Chinese or white populations. For each risk factor, in Chinese and Whites separately, we calculated study-specific and random effects pooled prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) for ICH versus IS.
Six studies among 36190 Chinese, and seven among 52100 white stroke patients studied hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypercholesterolemia, smoking and alcohol. Pooled prevalence of AF was significantly lower in Chinese. Pooled ORs for ICH versus IS were mostly similar in Chinese and Whites. However, in Chinese-but not Whites-mean age was lower (62 versus 69 years), while hypertension and alcohol were significantly more frequent in ICH than IS (ORs 1.38, 95% CI 1.18-1.62, and 1.46, 1.12-1.91). Hypercholesterolemia and smoking were significantly less frequent in ICH in Whites, but not Chinese, while IHD, AF and diabetes were less frequent in ICH in both.
Different risk factor distributions in ICH and IS raise interesting possibilities about variation in mechanisms underlying the different distributions of pathological types of stroke between Chinese and Whites. Further analyses in large, prospective studies, including adjustment for potential confounders, are needed to consolidate and extend these findings.
Comparing Risk Factor Profiles between Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Ischemic Stroke in Chinese and White Populations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Chung-Fen Tsai,1,2 Niall Anderson,3 Brenda Thomas,2 and Cathie L. M. Sudlow2,4,* Terence J Quinn, Editor
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B-cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B-cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.
The reference epigenome and regulatory chromatin landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Renee Beekman,1,2 Vicente Chapaprieta,3 Núria RussiNol,1 Roser Vilarrasa-Blasi,3 Núria Verdaguer-Dot,3 Joost H.A. Martens,4 Marti Duran-Ferrer,3 Marta Kulis,5 Francois Serra,6,7,8 Biola M. Javierre,9 Steven W. Wingett,9 Guillem Clot,1,2 Ana C. Queiros,1 Giancarlo Castellano,10 Julie Blanc,6,11 Marta Gut,6,11 Angelika Merkel,6,11 Simon Heath,6,11 Anna Vlasova,12 Sebastian Ullrich,12 Emilio Palumbo,12 Anna Enjuanes,1,2 David Martin-Garcia,1,2 Silvia Beà,1,2 Magda Pinyol,1,2 Marta Aymerich,2,13 Romina Royo,14 Montserrat Puiggros,14 David Torrents,14,15 Avik Datta,16 Ernesto Lowy,16 Myrto Kostadima,16 Maša Roller,16 Laura Clarke,16 Paul Flicek,16 Xabier Agirre,2,17 Felipe Prosper,2,17,18 Tycho Baumann,2,19 Julio Delgado,2,19 Armando Lopez-Guillermo,2,19 Peter Fraser,9,20 Marie-Laure Yaspo,21 Roderic Guigo,12 Reiner Siebert,22 Marc A. Marti-Renom,6,7,8,15 Xose S. Puente,2,23 Carlos Lopez-Otin,2,23 Ivo Gut,6,11 Hendrik G. Stunnenberg,4 Elias Campo,1,2,3,5,24 and Jose I. Martin-Subero1,2,3
2019 Feb 5.