White crystalline powder
3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid/4,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid/3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid/4-Carboxy-1,2-dihydroxybenzene/Protocatehuic acid/protocatechuate/Benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-/protochatechuic acid/protocatechuic acid/3,4-dihydroxybenzoate/Benzoic acid,3,4-dihydroxy
410.7±35.0 °C at 760 mmHg
197-200 °C (dec.)(lit.)
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:99-50-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation triggers the activation of many reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive signaling pathways, resulting in the induction of skin damage that can progress to premature skin aging with long-term exposure. Even after the cessation of UVB radiation, the activated photosensitizers can still cause cellular injury. Thus, the use of photoprotectors that inhibit or prevent intracellular ROS production during or after UV exposure is one alternative to counteract UV-induced oxidative damage. The present study investigated the photoprotective activity of protocatechuic acid (P0) and its alkyl esters ethyl protocatechuate (P2) and heptyl protocatechuate (P7) against UVB-induced damage in L929 fibroblasts by evaluating biomarkers of oxidative stress and photoaging. P0, P2 and P7 markedly increased cell viability after UVB exposure. This protective effect was related to the ability of these compounds to absorb UVB and restore cellular redox balance even 24 h after UVB exposure. P0, P2 and P7 also decreased oxidative damage to membrane lipids, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA. They also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and downregulated the expression of the photoaging-related proteins matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -9 and cyclooxygenase-2. As the lipophilicity of the P0 derivatives increased, their antioxidant potency increased, but more pronounced cytotoxic effects were also detected. In summary, P0 and P2 may be promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of UVB-induced skin photodamage and photoaging.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oxidative stress; Photoaging; Protocatechuic acid; Protocatechuic acid alkyl esters; UVB
Abilities of protocatechuic acid and its alkyl esters, ethyl and heptyl protocatechuates, to counteract UVB-induced oxidative injuries and photoaging in fibroblasts L929 cell line.
Dare RG1, Oliveira MM1, Truiti MCT1, Nakamura CV2, Ximenes VF3, Lautenschlager SOS4.
Biogas and phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge (WAS) with sequential homogeneous protocatechuic acid (PCA) enhanced Fenton pretreatment, anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) were investigated. The cumulation of biogas production of WAS-Fenton-AD was 330.4 mL/g VS, which was 2.05-fold of the control without pretreatment (WAS-AD) during anaerobic digestion. Biogas production of 178 mL/L/d from WAS-Fenton-AD-MEC was achieved, which was 5.23-fold of the WAS-MEC, 2.28-fold of WAS-Fenton-MEC and 1.46-fold of WAS-AD-MEC, respectively. Enhanced phosphorus recovery in form of struvite reached 1.72 g/g TS (18.03% of total P) with a purity of 74.4%. Microbial community richness and diversity analysis revealed that the pretreatment process under circumneutral condition improved the diversity of microbial community, which was consisted of Bacteroidetes (33.90%), Proteobacteria (33.14%), and Chloroflexi (10.14%), compared to a majority of Firmicutes (70.81%) in WAS-AD. This study provides a feasible strategy for the recovery of biogas combined with phosphorus from WAS.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anaerobic digestion; Homogeneous Fenton process; Microbial electrolysis cell; Struvite; Waste activated sludge
Biogas and phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge with protocatechuic acid enhanced Fenton pretreatment, anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell.
Hou H1, Li Z1, Liu B1, Liang S1, Xiao K1, Zhu Q1, Hu S1, Yang J2, Hu J3.
2020 Feb 20
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides) is a valuable and nourishing medicinal herb in China that has been used in the treatment of hypertension. Given the fact that most traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease, investigating the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines in the pathological state is more useful than that in the normal state. However, the differences in the absorption kinetics of active ingredients of E. ulmoides extract between pathological and physiological conditions have not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the rat intestinal in situ circulatory perfusion model was used to investigate the differences in absorption kinetics of seven active ingredients of E. ulmoides extract in normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats, namely, genipinic acid, protocatechuic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, (+)-pinoresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and (+)-pinoresinol 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Our results indicate that the pathological state of spontaneous hypertension may change the absorption of active components of E. ulmoides extracts, and these findings may provide a reference for improving the rational use of E. ulmoides in the clinic.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Eucommia ulmoides extract; antihypertensive active components; intestinal absorption; intestinal in situ circulatory perfusion model
Comparative absorption kinetics of seven active ingredients of Eucommia ulmoides extracts by intestinal in situ circulatory perfusion in normal and spontaneous hypertensive rats.
Hu H1,2, Wu L1,2, Li M1,2, Xue C1,2, Wang G1, Chen S1, Huang Y1, Zheng L1, Wang A3, Li Y1, Gong Z1.
Protocatechuic acid is a phenolic compound which exhibits neuroprotective effect.