Colorless needle crystal
Veratrum nigrum L/Verbascum thapsus, Schoenocaulon officinale, Lithospermum sp., Stephania abyssinica and other plants. Widespread in glycosides and alkaloids in esterified form. Aristolochia cucurbitifolia as the Na salt
Benzoic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy-/3,4-Dimethoxybenzoic acid/Veratric acid
Methanol; Chloroform; DMSO
302.9±22.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:93-07-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Veratric acid, one of the major benzoic acid isolated from vegetables and fruits, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of veratric acid on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were pretreated with veratric acid 1 h before LPS stimulation. The productions of IL-6 and IL-8 were detected by ELISA. The expression of iNOS, COX-2, PI3K, AKT, and NF-κB were detected by western blotting. The results showed that veratric acid inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. Veratric acid also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. In addition, veratric acid was found to suppress LPS-induced PI3K and AKT phosphorylation. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of veratric acid is due to its ability to inhibit PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.
IL-8; NF-κB; PI3K; human gingival fibroblasts; veratric acid
Veratric Acid Inhibits LPS-Induced IL-6 and IL-8 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.
Wang QB1, Sun LY2, Gong ZD1, Du Y3.
In the present study, we investigated regulatory effects of veratric acid on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. NO production was significantly decreased by veratric acid in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction in nitric oxide production was induced by the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Veratric acid suppressed the LPS-induced effects on the regulatory and catalytic subunits of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), comprised of p85, p110α, p110β and Akt. The acetylation of p300 and the phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) induced by LPS were downregulated following treatment with veratric acid; similar effects were observed following treatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt. The LPS-induced expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC)3 decreased to basal levels following treatment with veratric acid, and its expression was also downregulated by LY294002. In the measurement of histone acetylation levels, the LPS-stimulated acetylation of histone H4 was significantly attenuated by veratric acid, and was also reduced following the inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002. From our data, it can be concluded that veratric acid exerts a regulatory effect on LPS-induced iNOS expression. Our results suggest that veratric acid impedes the PI3K/Akt-mediated histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activation and HDAC expression induced by LPS, thereby abrogating iNOS expression.
Veratric acid inhibits iNOS expression through the regulation of PI3K activation and histone acetylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
Choi WS1, Seo YB1, Shin PG2, Kim WY3, Lee SY3, Choi YJ4, Kim GD1.
Metabolism studies with selected test substances have shown that a model on the basis of the incubated hen’s egg is suitable as a supplement to animal experimentation. Because of its 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl structure veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid), a known human metabolite of mebeverine, was chosen as model substance for the present investigations and the parent compound as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid were identified as main metabolites. The absence of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid lets conclude that the O-demethylation takes place exclusively at the p-methoxyl function. In addition, 3,3′,4,4′-tetramethoxy-l-ornithuric acid (2,5-bis-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoylamino)pentanoic acid) and its O-desmethyl derivative could be characterized as further metabolites. So far an amino acid conjugate has not been described after veratric acid administration in a vertebrate. There were no indications for the appearance of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in the veratric acid metabolism. This was confirmed by corresponding studies having the isomeric guaiacol acids as precursor. Furthermore, it could be proved that in ovo the O-methylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid occurs regioselective at the m-hydroxyl group. The results which broaden the knowledge on the metabolic fate of veratric acid are discussed in comparison with those in mammals. The metabolites were identified by GC-MS, ESI-HRMS and LC/ESI-MS/MS. The structure of the synthesized reference substance was confirmed by MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data.
? Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Studies on the Biotransformation of Veratric Acid, a Human Metabolite of Mebeverine, by Using the Incubated Hen's Egg.
Kiep L1, Gohl M2, Schmidt J3, Seifert K2.
Veratric acid (3,4-Dimethoxybenzoic acid) is an orally active phenolic compound derived from vegetables and fruits, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Veratric acid also acts as a protective agent against hypertension-associated cardiovascular remodelling. Veratric acid reduces upregulated COX-2 expression, and levels of PGE2, IL-6 after UVB irradiation.