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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:29199-09-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
To date 75 species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma forming teleomorphs are recognised in Europe. The 56 hyaline-spored species are here described in detail and illustrated in colour plates, including cultures and anamorphs. This number includes 16 new holomorphs, two new teleomorphs and nine anamorphs of species previously described as teleomorphs. Phylogenetic placement and relationships of the species are shown on the strict consensus tree, based on sequences of RNA polymerase II subunit b (rpb2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) exon, comprising 135 species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. All available holotypes of species described from Europe including some from North America have been examined. A dichotomous key to the species is provided primarily utilising ecological and morphological traits of the teleomorphs and, where necessary, morphology of the anamorphs and cultures, and growth rates. Species descriptions are subdivided among five chapters, arranged primarily according to the larger phylogenetic clades, viz. section Trichoderma with 13 species, the pachybasium core group with 13 species including four species with stipitate stromata (‘Podostroma’), species forming large effused stromata with 10 species including the section Hypocreanum, 9 species of the Brevicompactum, Lutea and Psychrophila clades, and 11 residual species of various smaller clades or of unknown phylogenetic placement. Finally, a list comprising dubious names and species excluded from Hypocrea that are relevant for Europe, or species claimed to occur in Europe by other authors is provided. Hypocrea minutispora is by far the most common species in Europe. For H. moravica, H. subalpina and H. tremelloides the anamorphs are newly described. The anamorphs of the latter two species and H. sambuci produce hyaline conidia on unusual structures new to Trichoderma. These three species form a new subclade of the morphologically strikingly different section Longibrachiatum, which is currently only represented by H. schweinitzii in Europe as a holomorph. The subclade is not named yet formally due to low statistical support. H. fungicola f. raduli is described as the new species H. austriaca, while H. hypomycella was found not to belong to Hypocrea. The typification of H. pilulifera, H. tremelloides and H. lutea has been clarified. Gliocladium deliquescens, the anamorph of H. lutea, is combined in Trichoderma. Species are epitypified where appropriate. Anamorph names are established prospectively to avoid numerous new combinations in future when they may be possibly used as holomorphic names if the ICBN is altered accordingly.
Arachnocrea, Ascomycetes, DNA barcode, Gliocladium, Hypocreales, ITS, Morphology, Protocrea, rpb2, Phylogenetic analysis, Systematics, Taxonomy, tef1, Trichoderma
European species of Hypocrea part II: species with hyaline ascospores
Walter M. Jaklitschcorresponding author
2011 Mar 15
Theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity increases men’s health risks. Previous findings from the United States support this contention, however only a small number of health outcomes have been explored. This study extends the range of health outcomes examined by using a cross-sectional, multilevel analysis to investigate whether measures of state-level gender inequity are predictors of men’s self-rated health. Data were derived primarily from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the full-case data set included 116,594 individuals nested within 50 states. Gender inequity was measured with nine variables: higher education, women’s reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and gross domestic product per capita. In fully adjusted models for all-age men the reproductive rights (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.01-1.11), abortion provider access (OR 1.11 95% CI 1.05-1.16) and earnings (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.02-1.12) measures all predicted an increased risk of men reporting poorer self-rated health for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z-score. The most consistent effect was seen for the 65+ age group where the reproductive rights (OR 1.09 95% CI 1.03-1.16), abortion provider access (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.09-1.21), elected office (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.01-1.11) and earnings (OR 1.10 95% CI 1.04-1.16) measures all showed a significant effect. These findings provide evidence that some aspects of gender inequity increase the risk of poorer self-rated health in men. The study contributes to a growing body of literature implicating gender inequity in men’s health patterns.
Is gender inequity a risk factor for men reporting poorer self-rated health in the United States?
Shane A. Kavanagh, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,* Julia M. Shelley, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,2 and Christopher Stevenson, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing2 Shari L. Dworkin, Editor
Objective: Geographical information systems (GIS) have been extensively used for the development of epidemiological maps of tropical diseases, however not yet specifically for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.
Methods: Surveillance case data of the ongoing epidemics of ZIKV in the Tolima department, Colombia (2015-2016) were used to estimate cumulative incidence rates (cases/100,000 pop.) to develop the first maps in the department and its municipalities, including detail for the capital, Ibague. The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1®. Two thematic maps were developed according to municipality and communes incidence rates.
Results: Up to March 5, 2016, 4,094 cases of ZIKV were reported in Tolima, for cumulated rates of 289.9 cases/100,000 pop. (7.95% of the country). Burden of ZIKV infection has been concentrated in its east area, where municipalities have reported >500 cases/100,000 pop. These municipalities are bordered by two other departments, Cundinamarca (3,778 cases) and Huila (5,338 cases), which also have high incidences of ZIKV infection. Seven municipalities of Tolima ranged from 250-499.99 cases/100,000 pop., of this group five border with high incidence municipalities (>250), including the capital, where almost half of the reported cases of ZIKV in Tolima are concentrated.
Conclusions: Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to guide decisions for the prevention and control of diseases that represent significant issues in the region and the country, but also in emerging conditions such as ZIKV.
Zika, epidemiology, public health, travelers, Colombia, Latin America.
Mapping Zika virus infection using geographical information systems in Tolima, Colombia, 2015-2016
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales,a,1,2,3 Maria Leonor Galindo-Marquez,1 Carlos Julian Garcia-Loaiza,1 Juan Alejandro Sabogal-Roman,1 Santiago Marin-Loaiza,1 Andres Felipe Ayala,1 Carlos O. Lozada-Riascos,4 Andrea Sarmiento-Ospina,3,5 Heriberto Vasquez-Serna,3,6 Carlos E. Jimenez-Canizales,1,3,6 and Juan Pablo Escalera-Antezana3,7