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Lumbar dynamometry is a potentially useful method for assessing the state of trunk muscles in low back pain (LBP) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of lumbar dynamometry measurements in chronic LBP patients by conducting test-retest measurements on different days. Thirtyone men and 14 women with chronic LBP participated in this study. The experiments consisted of three sets of lumbar dynamometry measurements (Isostation B200) carried out on three different days with a 2- to 3-day interval. A standard protocol was administered to all subjects, consisting of a range-of-motion measurement about each axis, a 5 s maximum isometric trial about each axis and five dynamic repetitions about each axis against a resistance set at 25% and at 50% of the maximum isometric torque. Correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to detect possible learning effects. One-way anova and regression analysis were used to assess the reliability of the measurements. High coefficients were found for the correlation between the first and second lumbar dynamometry measurements. Regression analysis showed that the differences between those measurements were not significant. This means that there was no learning effect operating between the first and second lumbar dynamometry measurements. One-way anova showed a reliability higher than 0.90 for the torque and velocity parameters. Reliability for the range-of-motion parameters was somewhat lower: between 0.76 and 0.94. Regression analysis showed no significant differences between the second and third measurements for the torque and velocity parameters. For range-of-motion parameters significant differences were found. From this study it can be concluded that the Isostation B200 provides reliable measures of torque and velocity parameters, but measures of the range-of-motion parameters are unreliable. No learning effect operates between the first and second lumbar dynamometry measurements, which means that a single measurement, with prior warming up and practice, is sufficient to assess the performance of the LBP patient.
Chronic low back pain, Isostation, Reliability, Learning effect
Reliability of lumbar dynamometry measurements in patients with chronic low back pain with test-retest measurements on different days
M. M. R. Huttencorresponding author and H. J. Hermens
The purpose of this study was to investigate which demographic parameters are most important in relation to lumbar dynamometry performance in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Forty-five chronic LBP patients participated in this study. Gender, age, weight and height were determined and a lumbar dynamometry measurement was carried out, using the Isostation B200. Student’s t-test, ANOVA techniques and correlation coefficients were used to investigate the relationships between each demographic parameter and lumbar dynamometry performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed afterwards to determine which demographic parameters are most important in relation to lumbar dynamometry performance. Results indicate significant relationships (1) between gender, height, weight and all lumbar dynamometry parameters and (2) between age and three of the six isometric torque parameters. No significant relationship was found between age and maximum velocity parameters. Results of the stepwise multiple linear regression analyses show that the demographic parameters explain 27-47% of the variance in maximum isometric strength parameters and 19-25% of the variance in maximum velocity parameters. Gender is the most important demographic parameter, being related to nearly all maximum isometric torque parameters (percentage explained variance 6-37%) and height is the only important demographic parameter related to the velocity parameters (percentage explained variance 19-25%). Weight and age account for only a small amount of variance in lumbar dynamometry parameters (percentage explained variance 5-7%), meaning that these parameters are non-relevant predictors.
Key words Isostation B200, Low, back pain, Gender, Age, Weight, Height
Relationships between isoinertial lumbar dynamometry parameters and demographic parameters in chronic low back pain patients
M. M. R. Hutten and H. J. Hermens
The molecular mechanisms involved in the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may differ in various cell types and with various exogenous stimuli. Astrocytic glial cells, which can support HIV-1 replication in cell cultures and may be infected in vivo, are demonstrated to provide a cellular milieu in which TAR mutant HIV-1 viruses may replicate. Using transfections of various TAR mutant HIV-1 proviral constructs, we demonstrate TAR-independent replication in unstimulated astrocytic cells. We further demonstrate, using viral constructs with mutations in the tat gene and in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-binding sites (enhancer) of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, that TAR-independent HIV-1 replication in astrocytic cells requires both intact NF-kappa B moiety-binding motifs in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat and Tat expression. We measured HIV-1 p24 antigen production, syncytium formation, and levels and patterns of viral RNA expression by Northern (RNA) blotting to characterize TAR-independent HIV-1 expression in astrocytic glial cells. This alternative regulatory pathway of TAR-independent, Tat-responsive viral production may be important in certain cell types for therapies which seek to perturb Tat-TAR binding as a strategy to interrupt the viral lytic cycle.
TAR-independent replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in glial cells
O Bagasra, K Khalili, T Seshamma, J P Taylor, and R J Pomerantz