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The purpose of the present study was to detail the childhood developmental course of different white matter (WM) characteristics. In a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of 159 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice, we used tract-based spatial statistics as well as delineation of 15 major WM tracts to characterize the regional pattern of change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). We tested whether there were decelerations of change with increasing age globally and tract-wise, and also illustrated change along medial-to-lateral, posterior-to-anterior and inferior-to-superior gradients. We found a significant linear increase in global FA, and decrease in MD and RD over time. For mean AD, a weak decrease was observed. The developmental changes in specific WM tracts showed regional differences. Eight WM tracts showed non-linear development patterns for one or several DTI metrics, with a deceleration in change with age. Sex did not affect change in any DTI metric. Overall, greater rate of change was found in the left hemisphere. Spatially, there was a posterior-to-anterior gradient of change with greater change in frontal regions for all metrics. The current study provides a comprehensive characterization of the regional patters of change in WM microstructure across pre-adolescence childhood.
Development, White matter maturation, MRI, DTI, Longitudinal, Children
Changes in white matter microstructure in the developing brain—A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study of children from 4 to 11 years of age
Stine K. Krogsrud,a,⁎ Anders M. Fjell,a,b Christian K. Tamnes,a Hakon Grydeland,a Lia Mork,a Paulina Due-Tønnessen,a,c Atle Bjørnerud,a,d Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista,e Jesper Andersson,e Heidi Johansen-Berg,e and Kristine B. Walhovda,b
2016 Jan 1;
Preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks) with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight ≤ 1500 g) is associated with lifelong cognitive deficits, including in executive function, and persistent alterations in cortical and subcortical structures. However, it remains unclear whether “catch-up” growth is possible in the preterm/VLBW brain. Longitudinal structural MRI was conducted with children born preterm with VLBW (n = 41) and term-born peers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n = 128) at two timepoints in early school age (mean ages 8.0 and 9.3 years). Images were analyzed with the FreeSurfer 5.3.0 longitudinal stream to assess differences in development of cortical thickness, surface area, and brain structure volumes, as well as associations with executive function development (NEPSY Statue and WMS-III Spatial Span scores) and perinatal health markers. No longitudinal group × time effects in cortical thickness, surface area, or subcortical volumes were seen, indicating similar brain growth trajectories in the groups over an approximately 16-month period in middle childhood. Higher IQ scores within the VLBW group were associated with greater surface area in left parieto-occipital and inferior temporal regions. Among VLBW preterm-born children, cortical surface area was smaller across the cortical mantle, and cortical thickness was thicker occipitally and frontally and thinner in lateral parietal and posterior temporal areas. Smaller volumes of corpus callosum, right globus pallidus, and right thalamus persisted in the VLBW group from timepoint 1 to 2. VLBW children had on average IQ 1 SD below term-born MoBa peers and significantly worse scores on WMS-III Spatial Span. Executive function scores did not show differential associations with morphometry between groups cross-sectionally or longitudinally. This study investigated divergent or “catch-up” growth in terms of cortical thickness, surface area, and volumes of subcortical gray matter structures and corpus callosum in children born preterm/VLBW and did not find group × time interactions. Greater surface area at mean age 9.3 in left parieto-occipital and inferior temporal cortex was associated with higher IQ in the VLBW group. These results suggest that preterm VLBW children may have altered cognitive networks, yet have structural growth trajectories that appear generally similar to their term-born peers in this early school age window.
Trajectories of brain development in school-age children born preterm with very low birth weight
K. Sripada,corresponding author1 K. J. Bjuland,2 A. E. Sølsnes,1 A. K. Haberg,3,4 K. H. Grunewaldt,1,5 G. C. Løhaugen,2 L. M. Rimol,4,6 and J. Skranes1,2
The ductus arteriosus, an essential embryonic blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, constricts after birth or hatching and eventually closes to terminate embryonic circulation. Chicken embryos have two long ductus arteriosi, which anatomically differ from mammal ductus arteriosus. Each long ductus arteriosus is divided into two parts: the pulmonary artery-sided and descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosi. Although the pulmonary artery-sided and descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosi have distinct functional characteristics, such as oxygen responsiveness, the difference in their transcriptional profiles has not been investigated. We performed a DNA microarray analysis (GSE 120116 at NCBI GEO) with pooled tissues from the chicken pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus, descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosus, and aorta at the internal pipping stage. Although several known ductus arteriosus-dominant genes such as tfap2b were highly expressed in the pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus, we newly found genes that were dominantly expressed in the chicken pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus. Interestingly, cluster analysis showed that the expression pattern of the pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus was closer to that of the descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosus than that of the aorta, whereas the morphology of the descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosus was closer to that of the aorta than that of the pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus. Subsequent pathway analysis with DAVID bioinformatics resources revealed that the pulmonary artery-sided ductus arteriosus showed enhanced expression of the genes involved in melanogenesis and tyrosine metabolism compared with the descending aorta-sided ductus arteriosus, suggesting that tyrosinase and the related genes play an important role in the proper differentiation of neural crest-derived cells during vascular remodeling in the ductus arteriosus. In conclusion, the transcription profiles of the chicken ductus arteriosus provide new insights for investigating the mechanism of ductus arteriosus closure.
Transcriptional profiles in the chicken ductus arteriosus during hatching
Toru Akaike, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - original draft,#1 Satoko Shinjo, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - original draft,#1,2 Eriko Ohmori, Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation,#2 Ichige Kajimura, Investigation,1 Nobuhito Goda, Conceptualization, Supervision,2 and Susumu Minamisawa, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Supervision, Writing - review & editing1,2,*